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assignments essays The assignment is to write an essay in two parts. The topic should be a question, not just a concept or theme. In Part 1 you show how one of our authors would have answered your question. In Part 2 you comment on of the Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay the adequacy of that answer. Mac Cosmetics. Ask a good question. (Tips and details.) In Part 1, interpret or reconstruct how one of our authors would have answered your question. The author's answer includes the conclusion and Traits of the Hero Odyssey by Homer the arguments in barriers, support of that conclusion. Present your reconstruction of the author's answer as a direct response to your main question. (Interpret the author's answer to this question and only the author's answer to this question.) Support your interpretation with textual evidence. Using textual evidence means, among other things, to cite the text by page number for every significant claim you attribute to the author, whether you are quoting or merely paraphrasing. (Tips and details.) In Part 2, start to assess the adequacy of the author's answer and supporting arguments. Comment on their strengths and weaknesses as you see them, and Traits Odysseus Odyssey Essay present your evaluation as a direct response to the author's position in Part 1. (Evaluate the position you interpreted in Part 1 and only the position you interpreted in Part 1.) Assess the author's arguments, not just the author's conclusions.
If you had to choose, assessing the author's arguments is more important than assessing the author's conclusions. Support your evaluative comments with explicit arguments of your own. Address your arguments to the open-minded, educated public. Which Hierarchy Feudalism From Most To Least Powerful?. (Tips and Traits of the Hero in the Odyssey details.) Be fascinating and profound. (Tips and details.) Think of this paper as the beginning of a dialogue between two thoughtful people on some important question. Which Proper Of Japanese Feudalism From Most. The two thoughtful people are you and the author. Traits Of The Hero By Homer Essay. The important question is yours. In Part 1 you are listening to the author; in Part 2 you are speaking. In Part 1 you are interpreting the author's answer to the question; in Part 2 you are evaluating it. The purpose of the what are communication, paper is to help you and Traits of the Hero in the Essay your readers make some progress toward answering this important question.
That's the simple, grand idea. Facebook And Its Affect In Our Society. Make your main question explicit early in the paper, preferably in the title. Label Parts 1 and 2 explicitly so that you and I both know where to find them. The two parts are equal in weight in the final grade and should get roughly equal space. To get started you need a question and an author. Odysseus In The Essay. I usually ask for prison history these two decisions in writing one week before the paper is due. Look to Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay the syllabus for prison the page range and the due date. I don't expect you to Traits of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer absorb this long description of the alcatraz prison, assignment at one sitting. I include it here as a reference and study aid. If you wonder what a certain part of the assignment really requires, or if you are having trouble with a certain part, read my elaboration on that part here.
Then let's talk. Ask a Good Question Reading the author's text and discussing it class undoubtedly made you think. Traits Odysseus In The Essay. What questions were you moved to think about? Pick one for who owns the paper. Traits Of The Odyssey By Homer. Make the question explicit very early in the paper, for example in the title or first paragraph. Don't make us wonder what your question is or infer it from statements about issues and Essay Changes in Macbeth problems. I will grade you, in part, on how directly and adequately you address your own question. So pick your words with care when stating the question, and monitor how closely you stick to your question throughout the of the Hero Odysseus in the Essay, paper. From all the Essay Changes, questions that arise from the author's text, pick a question that is important to of the Odysseus in the Essay you. You'll write a much better paper this way and the labor will be in a good cause.
Philosophy papers should not be merely academic. Which Proper Hierarchy Feudalism Most To Least Powerful?. Your question should also be important to the author. If it isn't, it may be a very good philosophical question to raise and Hero by Homer Essay pursue, but not a good paper topic for this author. Not all good philosophical questions make good paper topics for this assignment. Some are too big. Some are too small. Some are best addressed to authors we're not reading. By all means pose and investigate these questions; this will deepen your inquiry and help you grow as a philosopher. But for the paper, look for a question that fits both the page range and the authors in our syllabus.
One reason I often ask you for your topic question a week before the paper is what are communication, due is to give you feedback on whether the of the Odysseus Odyssey, question is too large or too small. Who Owns Mac Cosmetics. If you want this kind of Traits of the Odysseus in the feedback even earlier, I'd be happy to who owns talk (in my office or by Traits of the Hero Odysseus by Homer, email) about the questions you are considering or to help you frame your emerging topic as a question. You may have trouble picking a topic question with relatively clear boundary lines. You may like question A, but see that it commits you to write about How the Crime Essay, B, C, and D, when each of those commits you to write about Hero Odyssey Essay, further topics. This is alcatraz, a genuine problem.
You've noticed that in philosophy all issues are connected. Of The By Homer Essay. Don't blame yourself or the How the Crime Scene Officers Protect the Evidence, author. The solution is to use your best judgment to give your primary topic primary attention in the paper, and to give secondary topics merely secondary attention. Don't hesitate to Odysseus in the Odyssey mention related topics, especially when doing so will illuminate your primary topic. But don't digress deeply into secondary topics and, above all, don't let them take over the paper. If your digressions go more deeply than your analysis of the primary topic, then change your topic to the subject of your deepest digression. Ask a question about real issues, not merely about what an author believed about real issues. For example, ask, Can free will and proper hierarchy of japanese feudalism from to least powerful? causal determinism be reconciled? not, Does Leibniz think free will and Odysseus Odyssey by Homer determinism can be reconciled? You can still write Part 1 of your paper on Leibniz, if you like. But you'll also write a Part 2, which assumes that the question is interesting and important in its own right.
The question need not be one that the mac cosmetics, author directly addressed. When it isn't, you won't find the author's answer already laid out in Traits in the Odyssey, black and white in the text, but you can often find plenty of textual clues to what the author would have said. In Part 1, limit yourself to those parts of the author's position that answer the which hierarchy of japanese feudalism from to least, main question. In Part 2, limit yourself to Traits Essay those evaluative comments that bear on the author's answer to the main question. In this sense, the question is the organizing key to prison history the paper. The question should tell you what to include in the paper, what to omit, and Hero in the by Homer Essay when to stop. But the paper in turn may suggest revisions to make in the question. Let the question and the paper addressing it influence each other reciprocally. When you are finished, the two ought to be in perfect alignment. Organizing the paper around a single question lets you focus, and of japanese from therefore helps you achieve depth rather than breadth.
To reach depth in this sense is at least (1) to attain a fine level of detail, (2) to respect the complexity of the position and argument you are discussing, and (3) to qualify otherwise oversimple interpretations, explanations, and arguments. It might also include (4) identifying and addressing deeper assumptions or presuppositions and (5) asking questions that take us to Traits of the by Homer Essay even more basic issues. Breadth is only objectionable in a short paper and prison only because it prevents depth in this sense. Don't spread yourself thin, saying something superficial about many sub-topics, when by concentrating you could reach significant insights about one. There is no shortcut to depth, but you can help yourself by Traits Hero by Homer, picking one question and sticking to it mercilessly.
Part 1. Interpret the Author's Answer You've asked a good question. What's the prison history, author's answer? Interpretation is an attempt to understand the author, not just to excavate your impressions or reactions. You may have to Traits Hero Odysseus in the by Homer Essay use your imagination to reconstruct the author's answer and Crime Officers Protect Essay argument from subtle clues in the text. The author's supporting argument is part of the position and Hero Odysseus by Homer Essay must be included. Expound the author's position and argument as a direct response to prison the main question. Don't make us wonder about the connection between the position you are expounding and Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay the main question. Interpret all those parts of the author's general position that are necessary to answer your main question. To leave some out will oversimplify the who owns, author's answer.
Only interpret those parts of the author's general position that are necessary to in the Odyssey by Homer answer your main question. In a short paper you don't have space to waste on inessentials. What. You may assume that your readers have already read the author's book. Traits Hero Odysseus. They may not agree with you on mac cosmetics how to interpret or evaluate it, but at least you needn't summarize it for them in order the set the stage for your narrower inquiry. Cite the text by page number for Traits of the Hero in the Odyssey by Homer Essay every significant claim you attribute to the author, whether you are quoting or merely paraphrasing. This is necessary even if you are adopting a reading that I presented in class.
The rationale is the same here as it is for published scholarship. In Macbeth. Your readers may disagree with your reading and want to verify your claims. Or your readers may be inspired by your reading and want to follow-up and of the Hero in the by Homer Essay deepen the inquiry. Which Proper Hierarchy Of Japanese Feudalism From Most. Two of the chief weaknesses I see in interpretations are lack of textual evidence and oversimplification. These go together. If you force yourself to back up your interpretive claims with textual evidence and page numbers, then you'll be in a much better position to notice subtleties or complexities that you might have been overlooking. Oversimplified positions are almost always weaker than properly qualified or nuanced positions. Hence, oversimplification is a double fault. First, it weakens the interpretation by replacing the author's rich and Odysseus in the complex position with a caricature. Second, it invites unfair or misguided evaluation in Part 2. Unless the author's meaning in a quotation is obvious, interpret it for us.
Explain what the author meant and show us how that meaning supports the point you are making. Quotation proves that the author said the words, but it doesn't tell us how you interpret the words and it doesn't prove that the words support your interpretation. If your reader didn't understand the author the who owns, first time, then she won't understand your quotation until you offer your help. Demurrer . Traits Of The In The By Homer. Although I judge interpretations by the standard of accuracy, rather than originality and cleverness, I do not assume that there is such a thing as the author's intended meaning which exists independently of our collective interpretive efforts. But neither do I assume that there is not such a thing. This is a good philosophical question on Facebook Society Essay which it would be prejudicial for Hero Odysseus in the me to make an assumption one way or another. I assume only that to interpret a text as if the prison history, author intended a discoverable meaning will take you several steps beyond narcissism and toward productive listening, and that this is good education. So how can I grade you by of the Odysseus Odyssey, the standard of accuracy? First, I look for those signs of listening that take one beyond narcissism. Second, while I may not know the author's intended meaning on your topic, I do know passages in the text on your topic. If your interpretation does not take them into account, then it oversimplifies or fails to respect the who owns mac cosmetics, complexity of the Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey, text, an important kind of inaccuracy.
Here's a rough and ready way to tell whether you have written a good interpretation. If a peer from class read the alcatraz prison, book but was particularly baffled by the author's position on Traits Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer the question you've picked as your topic, would she receive concrete help from reading your interpretation? The most common problems I see in and Its in Our Society Essay, interpretations are the Traits Odysseus by Homer Essay, following. Missing the target. Focusing on some aspect of the author's position other than his or her answer to your topic question. Weakening the author. Presenting the author's conclusions without their supporting arguments.
Oversimplifying the author. Failing to respect the complexity or nuance of the text. Omitting your evidence. Not citing the text by page number for every significant claim you attribute to the author. Tying your own hands. Failing to interpret the parts of the author's position and argument on which you want to make evaluative comments in Part 2. Part 2. Evaluate the prison history, Author's Answer You've asked a good question and reconstructed the author's answer. Now, what do you think of that answer? I say evaluate the author's position only Traits Odysseus in the by Homer Essay as shorthand.
This brief formulation hides four aspects of an evaluation that are hard to squeeze into a headline. Which Is The Of Japanese Feudalism. To evaluate a position is to Traits of the in the by Homer evaluate its adequacy as an answer to the main question . Its adequacy for which is the of japanese to least other purposes is secondary here. To evaluate the adequacy of a position requires us to evaluate the adequacy of both the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer, conclusion and its supporting argument . Which Is The Hierarchy Feudalism From Most. To evaluate the adequacy of a position and argument is to judge them from your own standpoint . Your evaluative judgments must be supported by explicit arguments of your own. The assignment is not merely to reveal and articulate your standpoint in judging the author; that would be mere confession, not philosophy. The assignment is to Traits of the Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer defend or justify your standpoint. We are all stymied or intimidated by the bottom-line question whether the author was right or wrong on the topic question. But this is not the only question to address in Part 2, and prison history not even the preferred question. If so, then what's left, exactly? Consider some of these possibilities. Look closely at the author's arguments for the answer to the main question, as you have interpreted them in Hero Odyssey Essay, Part 1. Are you persuaded? What in them is strong?
What in Essay Changes in Macbeth, them is weak? Is the author's position on this question consistent with what he or she said elsewhere on another question? (To pursue a line like this, make sure that both parts of the author's text were interpreted in Part 1.) Is the author's position one-sided? Does it fail to take into account some kind of evidence, or some line of reasoning, or some relevant phenomenon, that you can argue should have been taken into account? Take an objection to Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer the author's position. It might be your own or a classical objection from the Essay about Changes in Macbeth, history of philosophy. Interpret the author's likely reply to the objection in Part 1. Here in Traits Hero Odyssey, Part 2 ask whether the author's response is adequate and persuasive, strong or weak. Explore what you find persuasive and unpersuasive, attractive and Facebook and Its Society unattractive in the author's position and argument. Explore what's attractive by seeing how it might apply in contexts the author didn't consider. Explore what's unattractive by trying to put your finger on an error or weakness.
Explore the Hero in the by Homer Essay, position by following out lines of Changes thought to see whether their consequences make the by Homer Essay, position, all in all, more attractive or less. Test its truth by seeing how well it can answer certain objections or explain certain phenomena. Perform these explorations in front of Essay our eyes. Don't do them in your head or on scratch paper and show us only the of the Hero, conclusions. In a philosophy paper, the which is the proper, reasons are at least as important as the of the in the, conclusions. In short, there are many less intimidating ways to evaluate a position and argument than to come to a judgment on whether the author's answer to the main question was right or wrong. To make this clear I often prefer to say that the assignment in Part 2 is to write evaluative comments rather than an evaluation as such. This is not just semantics. I really have the friendlier and what are communication less intimidating assignment in mind. I still want you to evaluate the author's position, and the adequacy of that position as you see it is still the only issue in Part 2 of the paper.
But your comments need not be final, definitive, or certain; they may be exploratory and tentative. If you see some strengths and some weaknesses, tell us about them and offer your arguments. Tell us why the aspects you consider strengths are strong and why the aspects you conaider weaknesses are weak. But don't worry if they don't add up to a definitive judgment. I want you to make progress toward answering the main question; it would be unfair for of the Hero Odysseus in the by Homer Essay me to Society Essay expect you to Traits Odysseus Odyssey finish the job #151;when philosophers themselves are still at work on it. Don't change the subject in Part 2. Limit your comments to the author's answer to How the Crime Officers Protect the Evidence the main question, as you interpreted that answer in of the in the, Part 1. There are two reasons for this. You cannot comment responsibly on history the adequacy of of the Odysseus any position that you have not previously interpreted.
The author might not deserve the judgment you have rendered. We won't know and you won't know until you show exactly what the author said on that subject, an interpretive job that belongs in Part 1. If you interpret the author on one question, and then evaluate the author on history different questions, then you waste the labor of your interpretation. You waste your limited space for evaluation on issues irrelevant to your chosen question. Traits Hero Odysseus Odyssey By Homer Essay. You miss an opportunity to Facebook deepen the inquiry by responding to what the author really did say on the question. The dialogue between two thoughtful people on an important question fizzles into two monologues. If you find yourself making evaluative comments on parts of the author's position that you have not previously interpreted in Part 1, then you face a choice. Traits Of The Odyssey By Homer Essay. Either delete your off-topic evaluative comments or change your question (and rewrite Part 1) in order to set up the are communication, topic of your evaluative comments. Your topic in Part 2 is the adequacy of the author's position, not whether you agree or disagree.
If you think the author's position was strong on some point, don't tell us that you agree with it; tell us where it was strong and why. If you think it was weak on some point, don't tell us that you disagree; tell us where it was weak and why. Indicating your agreement or disagreement is neither relevant nor sufficient. The question in Part 2 is not whether you agree or disagree, but whether you ought to Odysseus in the by Homer Essay agree or disagree. If you agree with the author, you and the author might both be wrong. If you disagree with the author, then you think you are right and alcatraz the author wrong, but of course the author would think it's the other way around. Traits Of The Hero Odysseus By Homer. You won't help settle the question by telling us what you accept and what you reject. Other inquirers can't build on that, unless they are simply counting votes. But you will help settle the question by showing exactly where and how the author's arguments were strong or weak. You may not even know whether you agree or disagree with the author's answer to the main question. Don't be alarmed.
Your reluctance to judge can actually help you write a good paper. Who Owns. (Somehow many students get the idea that philosophy is all about having opinions; it's not.) You may see pros and Hero in the Odyssey Essay cons without having made up your mind about how they balance out. Fine: tell us about proper hierarchy feudalism most to least, them. Your comments on what's strong and what's weak can be illuminating even if they are inconclusive and you remain undecided. In fact, your evaluative comments are likely to of the in the Essay be weak (one-sided and dogmatic) if you made up your mind made before undertaking the reasoned inquiry required for Part 2. Making up your mind is not always important; and when it is, then it's important to and Its in Our Society Essay do it right. That requires you to look closely at sophisticated answers to the question, think about their strengths and weaknesses, and frame your reasons for finding them to Odysseus Odyssey be strong or weak. This is How the Crime Scene Officers, just what Part 2 calls on you to do. The evaluative comments should show what you think about the author's answer to the main question. What's important to me is that you think about that answer.
I don't care whether you agree or disagree or can't make up your mind. I would much rather have you think without agreeing or disagreeing than to agree or disagree without thinking. Expound your evaluative comments as direct responses to the author's position and argument in Part 1. Traits Of The Hero In The Odyssey By Homer Essay. Don't make us wonder how your comments are relevant to the author's position or your evaluative judgment of it. Avoid making significant, new interpretive claims in Part 2. This steals space needed for evaluation, limiting the depth of who owns mac cosmetics your evaluative comments. Moreover, in my experience, interpretive claims in Part 2 tend to be made as asides, without adequate textual evidence.
To make them superficial is Traits Odysseus by Homer, a problem; to give them adequate textual evidence in Part 2 would subtract from the mac cosmetics, space left for evaluation. Lesson: Give them adequate textual evidence, but do it in Part 1. Since you are interpreting as well as evaluating the author, make sure your readers can tell when you are speaking for the author and of the Odysseus in the Odyssey when you are speaking for yourself. Don't be afraid to use the word I and take responsibility for your views, regardless of what you were taught in High School. The evaluative comments are roughly half the paper in importance and weight, and hence, roughly half a paper's grade. So give them roughly half the space. You may find it easier to criticize an author than to Essay in Macbeth support one.
On the one hand, don't mistake the of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay, easy path for who owns mac cosmetics the best path; on the other, don't worry if you only have critical comments. If you worry that you have to balance all negative comments with positive comments, then stop; you don't. If you worry that you have to of the Hero Odysseus by Homer Essay disagree with an Essay about Changes in Macbeth, author to be a good philosopher, then stop; you don't. If you worry that I will penalize criticism (on the Traits of the Odyssey by Homer Essay, theory that I don't assign authors when I don't agree with them), then stop; I won't. What. If you worry that your negative comments might be missing some of the story, then good; they might. If you worry that you can't express major agreements as easily as minor disagreements, then good; you should work on this. Because the author has already argued in favor of his or her position, probably very well, it is of the Hero Odyssey Essay, difficult to find anything to who owns mac cosmetics say in support of the position without merely repeating what the author has said. This is often true, but don't be led by these pressures to criticize a position that you support. Traits Of The Hero In The Odyssey By Homer Essay. One way to support an author is to show that the author's position can satisfactorily answer objections which (for one reason or another) the author didn't explicitly address. You may well have studied some of are communication these objections in Traits Odyssey, class; certainly you can find some in the library.
Another way is to show that the position can satisfactorily explain phenomena or solve problems which (for one reason or another) the who owns, author never considered. Another is to show that an apparent problem is Traits Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer Essay, not a real problem, or that the solution to one problem dovetails or coheres beautifully with the solution to another problem. Another is to show that the philosopher solves a problem left unsolved by some previous philosopher, yet without creating the new problem that prevented the previous philosopher from seeing or adopting the same solution. Use your imagination and you'll find many other ways as well. On the other hand, don't hesitate to criticize a position strongly.
You will not violate some unwritten rule or offend me. I defend our authors against misinterpretation in order to help us interpret them accurately, and I defend them against objections (at least while I'm teaching them) in order to show you what resources these positions have to defend themselves. And I defend my decision to include them in about Changes in Macbeth, the syllabus, as authors worth your time and Hero in the Odyssey Essay attention. But that's it. I don't defend them against Facebook and Its Affect Society a well-argued critique.
Don't distort your paper by Hero Odysseus in the by Homer, avoiding a critique in fear of who owns mac cosmetics offending me or jeopardizing your grade. I'm teaching, not preaching. You can learn a lot from an author by clarifying your suspicion that something has gone wrong, putting your finger on what you believe to be a mistake, and arguing that such a step is Traits Hero Odysseus Odyssey, mistaken. The justification of mac cosmetics your critique matters to me, but its severity does not. Traits Of The Hero By Homer Essay. In short, if you criticize one of the author's positions, just make sure that the author deserves it. If you need a checklist to keep you honest, then try to (1) show that the author actually asserted the claim you want to criticize, (2) show the author's reasons for asserting it, and (3) show what's wrong with those reasons.
Here's a little elaboration on these three tasks. If you criticize the which is the feudalism from powerful?, author for saying x , then make sure that in Part 1 you provide textual evidence to show that the author really did say x . Don't criticize a position that the author never asserted, and don't criticize an Traits Hero Odysseus in the, asserted position that you haven't yet interpreted for us. Make sure that in Essay about, Part 1 you reconstruct the author's arguments for x . Show the case for x at its strongest, at least in the strongest form in which this author gives it. If you don't, your evaluation is bound to be unfair. Make sure that you directly address the author's arguments. If you have an original argument againt x , that's good; we want to hear it. But whether you have such an argument or not, you must address the author's argument for x and show us why you think it fails to establish x . The reason is simply that your arguments against x might be weaker than the author's arguments for x . We won't know until we see you evaluate the author's arguments and identify where they go wrong. Try to imagine how the author would reply to your criticism. Can you answer the author's objections?
Should you make any concessions to them and qualify your criticism? Interpreting the Traits Odyssey by Homer Essay, author's arguments in Part 1 is part of careful reading. Evaluating those arguments in Part 2 is part of responsible dialogue. But the task here is one of sensitive imagination. The author never heard your criticism and never responded to it. Can you imagine how the author would reply? This task also requires you to reply to objections, even though they are imagined objections.
This requires fair-mindedness with those who disagree with you, the humility to articulate objections to your own views, the logical sense to mac cosmetics know when you've answered an objection and when you've evaded one, the honesty to change your mind in the face of persuasive objections, and the skill with language to qualify your claims so that they capture the criticism you think is warranted and still acknowledge the strengths you wish to concede. If you can imagine objections to your own views and answer them, then you'll go a long way toward avoiding the one-sidedness fallacy. Here's one perspective on Hero Odyssey by Homer Essay the last couple of points. Don't be impatient to get to the important business of supporting what you support and opposing what you oppose, as if the author didn't exist or didn't offer arguments. There are two jobs to do first. First, ascertain whether the Crime Scene Officers Essay, author supports what you oppose, or opposes what you support. Traits Hero Odyssey Essay. That is, read the Essay Changes, author carefully enough to know whether he or she deserves your support. Traits Odysseus Essay. Second, be open to persuasion from the author that you should support something different. Part 2 is Essay about Changes in Macbeth, your chance to do philosophy, not merely to read and reconstruct the philosophy of others.
Part 1 can be construed as an historical or textual exercise, but Part 2 cannot. As philosophers, we do the kind of work in Part 1 for the sake of the kind of work in Part 2. By Homer. Here's a rough and ready way to tell whether you have written a good evaluation. If a peer from class agrees with you on mac cosmetics how to read the author's position on the question you've picked as your topic, but is tormented by of the Hero Odysseus Odyssey Essay, indecision on whether the author's position is is the hierarchy of japanese from to least powerful?, a good one, would she receive concrete help from reading your evaluation? The most common problems I see in evaluations are the following. Of The Odysseus In The By Homer Essay. Changing the is the of japanese from most to least, subject.
Not focusing the evaluation on the position you interpreted in Part 1. Dogmatizing. Not supporting your evaluative comments with argument. Fighting a straw man. Criticizing the author while oversimplifying, or even disregarding, the author's arguments for the conclusion you criticize. Quitting early. Not giving the evaluation roughly the same space as the interpretation. Be Fascinating and Profound. Traits Hero Odysseus In The By Homer Essay. You understand why your question matters. Can you communicate this understanding?
Write for the audience of the wide world, not just for Facebook and Its in Our me, yourself, your peers, or people of your own gender, race, culture, or century. Traits By Homer. Hence, be sensitive to the fact that large sectors of your audience share few if any of your values or background assumptions, and simply do not take for Essay Changes in Macbeth granted what you take for Hero in the Odyssey granted. Assume that your audience has read the books for the course, and is open-minded, but does not (yet) agree with you on alcatraz history their meaning or merits. Make sure that this very diverse audience knows (1) what you are talking about, (2) why it should agree with you, or at least why it should find your view reasonable and responsible, and (3) why it should care. To make yourself intelligible you will have to strive for a philosopher's clarity and Traits of the Hero in the Essay precision, not those of daily discourse. To make yourself persuasive you will have to make cogent use of textual evidence (in your interpretation) and argument (in your evaluative comments). The request to argue is not a request to be quarrelsome, defensive, or aggressive. It is a request to be accountable to your audience, giving it good reasons in place of asking readers to which is the hierarchy from most to least take your word or to believe blindly. To make yourself fascinating and profound to this diverse audience you will have to Traits of the Odysseus Odyssey by Homer reach beyond your own self and and Its in Our Society Essay the provincial interests of Traits of the Hero Odyssey those like yourself to the interests of all humanity. Explicitly raise objections to Essay about in Macbeth your evaluative comments. Answer them and argue for your answers.
The objections could be from the Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay, standpoint of the author you are interpreting, another author from our course, a scholar you found in the library, or your imagination. Which Proper Of Japanese From Most To Least. Do some library research . This might help you interpret the Traits of the Hero in the by Homer, author's position and argument or evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. In Our Society. If you do use the Traits of the in the Odyssey Essay, library, cite all your sources in a bibliography. Write an abstract for your paper. Done in the right spirit, this is not extra work but a technique for improving your clarity. Make your paper comparative . In Part 1 give the answers of two of our authors to your main question, along with their supporting arguments. Prison. Leave the evaluation for Part 3 and insert a new Part 2 showing how they would respond to one another's arguments.
How would each object to the other, and how would each respond to the other's objections? Limit this dialogue to the issues that arise in answering the main question. Then in Traits Hero Odysseus Odyssey Essay, Part 3 comment on the strengths and weaknesses of the Essay in Macbeth, two positions and their supporting arguments. Start to judge who has the Traits of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer, stronger argument. Explicitly label your sections Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3 so we can both tell where they are.
Give each section roughly one third of your paper. Sometimes I assign comparative papers; when I do, this is mac cosmetics, what I mean. When I don't, this option is always available, but talk to me before taking it on. Make your paper semi-comparative. Write the evaluative comments of another philosopher (Part 2) as well as, or in addition to, your own (Part 3) on the author's position in Part 1. For example, Part 1 interprets Descartes on the ontological argument. Part 2 interprets Hume's evaluation of Descartes' position. Hero Odysseus Odyssey By Homer. Part 3 offers your own evaluation of Descartes' position, perhaps in light of Changes Hume's evaluation. In Part 2, you'll have the same obligation to provide textual evidence for Traits of the in the Odyssey by Homer Essay the second philosopher's views that you have in and Its Affect in Our Society, Part 1 for of the Odysseus by Homer the first philosopher's views. If you write two sets of evaluative comments, then to How the Protect the Evidence avoid oversimplification the paper would have to Traits of the Hero Essay be about 33% larger than the regular assignment. To write only one set of evaluative comments (those of alcatraz history another philosopher), the Traits Hero Odyssey, paper will be of the regular length. Talk to me before choosing either option.
With permission, and if you are ambitious, change the assignment for Part 2. Instead of writing evaluative comments on which hierarchy feudalism to least powerful? the author's answer to the main question, offer your own answer to the main question and an argument that your answer is of the Hero Odysseus by Homer Essay, superior to the author's answer. This is much harder to do well than the original assignment, so think twice before proposing it. End your paper with a series of Changes in Macbeth questions . The questions can raise issues that must be explored before we can finish answering your primary question. Of The Hero In The By Homer. Or they can show the direction for further inquiry now that you've settled the primary question. They can ask about deeper issues within your own topic or about neighboring topics. They can ask about logical presuppositions or consequences of the Essay, author's position, or historical antecedents or subsequent influence. Don't feel obliged to have answers. Let your inquisitive nature run. Sometimes students attach hand-written notes to their papers. I worked hard on x this time. Did I do a good job? #151;when x is interpreting arguments and not just positions, using textual evidence, arguing explicitly, sticking to the subject, grappling with a slippery distinction, raising objections and answering them, writing clearly, organizing, proofreading, or that puzzling passage on Traits of the Odysseus by Homer page 14 of the author's text.
Sometimes the notes give some personal context on why this topic is important. Sometimes they describe an admitted problem with the paper and ask for suggestions on How the Crime Officers Protect Essay how to avoid or solve it. I enjoy these notes. They help me know you better and Traits Essay respond more specifically to your effort. Why not type them, so I can read them more easily, and staple them to what barriers the paper, so I won't lose them? I'll try to comment on them as I do on the paper itself. My grading criteria follow this definition of the Traits Odysseus by Homer Essay, assignment. Any specific grading criteria that I will use for papers will be written in the syllabus or announced in Facebook and Its Affect Society Essay, class. Odysseus In The Odyssey. In general I will look for: a sharp question your interpretation of the author's answer and its supporting argument conscientious use of the text to support your interpretation your evaluative comments on the adequacy of the author's position explicit, persuasive argument to support your evaluative comments clear, precise writing depth over breadth in are communication, analysis respect for the complexity of the text, problem and/or position, and careful proofreading. Please take these criteria seriously; I do. Papers that take on more difficult questions will be graded with loving kindness.
Note that these grading criteria do not include spelling, diction, punctuation, grammar, or organization. The reason is not that these are unimportant; on the contrary, they are presupposed. To think that these essentials of good writing count only in Humanities or English classes is a mistake that hinders your growth as a writer. In grading I do not comment on matters of style. But clarity and precision are not merely matters of style. Clear writing reflects clear thinking. (Sometimes clear thinking produces clear writing, and sometimes clear writing produces clear thinking.) An important criterion of clarity is by Homer Essay, whether a reader who was puzzled by the book you're interpreting would receive concrete help from reading your paper. Crime Officers Essay. Write with the attitude of one trying to help a baffled peer from class to understand. Sometimes I will grade your interpretation and evaluation separately, and give the Traits of the Hero in the Odyssey, simple average of these two grades to the paper overall.
This kind of differentiated feedback helps you focus on where you need to improve. Scene Officers Protect Essay. It also helps to emphasize that each of these two tasks is half the paper in weight. If you would like me to give you comments without a grade, I will be happy to Traits of the Odysseus in the Essay do so. I must grade you for the sake of the college, but I can leave the grade off your paper. I try hard to grade fairly. If you don't understand why I gave you a certain grade, or if you think it was unfair, please come in so we can talk about it. Essay About In Macbeth. One of my most painful grading dilemmas is the high-quality essay that does not fulfill the assignment.
I've decided to deal with these by praising them, failing them, and requiring rewrites. In The. If you want to change the assignment, talk to me in advance. Facebook In Our Essay. If you would like more explanation of the assignment, what it is to write a philosophy paper, to interpret a text, evaluate a position, imagine and answer an objection, or argue for a conclusion, then see me and we can talk. If you are unsure about the wording or focus of your topic-question, its narrowness, difficulty, or importance, or if the connection between the of the Odysseus by Homer Essay, writing assignments and are communication the objectives of the course is ever unclear, I'd be happy to Hero Odysseus by Homer talk to you in who owns mac cosmetics, my office.
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Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language competency tests. In our research, we used cross-classified models to study rater effects in of the Odysseus in the the real essay rating process of a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in China in 2011. Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of rater effects: (1) the and Its Affect Society existence of sequential effects, (2) the Hero Odysseus Odyssey direction of the is the proper hierarchy of japanese from to least powerful? sequential effects, and (3) differences in raters by of the Hero in the Essay their individual characteristics. We applied these models to which is the proper hierarchy of japanese to least powerful? the data to account for possible cluster effects caused by the application of multiple rating strategies.
The results of our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the rating process. In contrast to many other studies on rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. Traits Of The Hero Odysseus By Homer? The more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. In addition, our research demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. This paper also discusses the implications for what are communication barriers, educators and practitioners who are interested in reducing sequential effects in the rating process, and suggests directions for future research. The ability to of the in the Odyssey by Homer write has long been regarded as one of the most important skills marking proficiency in a language. Therefore, writing assessments are an indispensable part of mac cosmetics, most language tests. Traits Hero Odysseus By Homer? Commonly, writing assessments request examinees to write essays 1 according to a set of instructions. In Macbeth? Then the essays are scored by Hero Odyssey human raters based on established rating scales.
In an ideal, but over-simplified, view of the rating process, raters first internalize a set of who owns mac cosmetics, stable and uniform standards, and then execute them consistently. Although they may be lenient or severe in how they enforce standards, raters should treat all responses impartially. Scores would not be affected by construct-irrelevant characteristics such as the location of an essay in a sequence of responses or the preference of raters. However, research has shown that substantial construct-irrelevant variance is introduced into essay scores as a consequence of the Traits of the Odysseus in the by Homer Essay rating process alone (Congdon and McQueen, 2000). Crime The Evidence? Even if the rating rubric has been constructed carefully, the reliability and validity of the rating process still depends mainly on the implementation of the rating activities (Overall and Magee, 1992). Because of variations in both the characteristics and status of raters, together with fluctuations between various rating environments, individual raters struggle to remain consistent across multiple rating processes, and different raters may assess the same samples differently.
These intra-rater and inter-rater discrepancies can have a negative impact on both the reliability and validity of the of the Hero by Homer Essay resulting scores. Collectively, these discrepancies are called rater effects (Wolfe, 2004). Rater Effects and Sequential Effects. Rater effects comprise a broad scope of effects, including severity/leniency, halo, central tendency, and restriction of range. Are Communication Barriers? While these four types of rater effects have attracted the most attention from researchers (e.g., Saal et al., 1980; Myford and Traits Hero Odysseus in the Essay, Wolfe, 2003; Wolfe, 2004), sequential effects are no less important. In the essay rating process, raters allocate scores to samples of responses in a certain sequence. It is likely that the scores could be impacted by their location in about the rating sequences as well as by their quality. Sequential effects are said to be present if the score of an essay is affected by previous ratings from the same rater (Jones et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). Sequential effects may manifest themselves in two ways. Hero Odysseus In The Odyssey By Homer? On the one hand, previous responses of lower quality can make the Essay about current response appear better, and Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer, vice versa (Attali, 2011). As a result, raters may give higher or lower scores than warranted because they are referring to the quality of the Essay about in Macbeth previous responses.
This phenomenon is known as contrast effects (Aiken, 1996). On the other hand, previous low quality responses may cause raters to give lower ratings to current high quality samples, and previous high quality responses may cause raters to Odyssey by Homer Essay give higher ratings to current low quality samples. This phenomenon is barriers known as assimilation effects (Attali, 2011). The existence of sequential effects highlights a serious problem: raters do not evaluate essays solely according to the given rubric. Hero In The? Rather, they continuously modify their inner criteria as a result of fatigue or practice. Just like all the alcatraz prison other well-known rater effects, the harm of sequential effects is serious enough that researchers and practitioners must pay attention to them. Sequential Effects in Psychophysics and Essay Ratings. Researchers in the areas of psychophysics and social judgments were the of the Hero Odysseus in the by Homer first to investigate sequential effects quantitatively. Most studies in these areas revealed the existence of contrast effects, such as the studies concerning visual perception (Helson, 1964), square sizes (Parducci et al., 1969), attractiveness (Brown et al., 1992; Thornton and Moore, 1993), and fairness (Mellers, 1986), among others. In comparison, there were some studies that showed the existence of assimilation effects (Parducci and Marshall, 1962) or the How the Crime Scene Officers Essay coexistence of contrast and assimilation effects (Sherif et al., 1958). Sequential effects were also found in studies of how essays are rated.
In the early studies, sequential effects manifested themselves as contrast effects (Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For instance, Hales and Tokar (1975) put the same mediocre essays in sequence behind good and poor essays, and then asked college students to score each sequence. Of The Hero Odysseus In The Odyssey? The results showed that the essays in the latter arrangement received significantly higher scores. Hughes et al. (1980a,b, 1983) used a set of what are communication barriers, essays of moderate quality as a reference, and they arrived at similar conclusions. The arrangements in these studies were very similar to those conducted in psychophysics and of the Hero in the Essay, social judgments, insofar as most of the studies were conducted under experimental conditions where raters were usually inexperienced and untrained, and a limited number of ratings were made. When it came to the case of essay ratings for large-scale examinations, differences were observed. Attali (2011) believed that the in Macbeth judgments of professional raters rendered during real essay rating processes are often performed in a manner that is unconscious and automatic or semi-automatic, with the result that assimilation effects may appear naturally. While studying the essay rating process for a large-scale standardized test, Attali (2011) found that professional raters tended to rate essays toward the same level as previous scores. Interestingly, longer intervals between adjacent ratings were associated with smaller assimilation effects. Assimilation effects also have been found in sports competitions where the process of performance judging has strong similarities to rating essays. In a study conducted by Damisch et al. (2006) of gymnastics competitions in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, the partial correlation between scores of present and previous athletes was 0.31.
In other words, high scores of previous athletes implied high scores for present ones, and vice versa, indicating the existence of assimilation effects. In that study, the appearance order was used as a control variable since the order was correlated with abilities, i.e., the of the Hero in the Odyssey Essay order was not random. Existing Methods for Exploring Sequential Effects. In the existing literature, several methods have been proposed to investigate sequential effects in ratings. In an experimental setting, one commonly used approach has been to place a target stimulus behind a sample of criterion stimuli of different quality. Then the ratings under the various settings were compared.
The statistical method used in Scene Officers Protect this approach was an analysis of variance or covariance (e.g., Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For real rating procedures, most often it is Odysseus Odyssey by Homer Essay not feasible to conduct studies in which is the hierarchy of japanese feudalism from experimental settings. Instead, studies of of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer, essay ratings can use a variety of methods to collect and analyze operational data during real world rating processes. Crime Scene The Evidence? One such method computes the correlation or partial correlation between present scores and scores made previously by the same raters. A significant positive correlation would indicate the existence of assimilation effects, whereas a significant negative correlation would indicate the occurrence of contrast effects (Damisch et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). However, the Traits Hero Odysseus in the by Homer Essay drawback for use of the correlation method is that it is about Changes unable to examine the joint influence of multiple previous scores on of the Hero Odysseus by Homer, the present score. The data structure also complicates the analysis when using the correlation method.
During the rating process of most large-scale examinations, typically a multiple rating strategy is which proper hierarchy from most employed. For this approach, raters and essays are partially crossed, which violates the independence requirement for correlation coefficient estimation. If the data structure is not taken into account, the resulting standard errors of the parameter estimates will be underestimated, which will lead to inflated type I error rates (Barcikowski, 1981; Scariano and Davenport, 1987; Raudenbush and Bryk, 2002). Because it is so common for raters and essays to be partially crossed, models are needed that can identify both rater and essay effects. Cross-classified models (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Hero in the Odyssey by Homer Essay, Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001) have been proposed to handle such structures.
In their applied work, Leckie and Baird (2011) fit cross-classified models to detect rater effects during the rating process of a large-scale examination. Mac Cosmetics? In another example, Ramineni (2008) estimated cross-classified models to the rating data of the United States Medical Licensure Examination, and revealed the existence of contrast effects. The exploration of sequential effects can prove useful for revealing the hidden cognitive processes behind rating behaviors. These investigations have theoretical and practical significance for essay ratings. However, large-scale educational examinations present many obstacles for research in this area, and the data collected often do not satisfy the requirements of many commonly used statistical models. Recognizing the significance of Traits Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, investigating sequential effects in essay ratings and nature of the data structures found in large-scale examinations, our study aimed to explore potential sequential effects in Changes in Macbeth essay ratings by using cross-classified models. The goal of this research was to explore sequential effects in essay ratings in of the Odysseus Odyssey by Homer Essay large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. The study was designed to illustrate the feasibility and appropriateness of cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for and Its Affect in Our Society, such data structures. The operational data used in this study were collected from a real rating process (described later in this paper) that employed a multiple rating strategy. The following research questions were addressed: (1) Were the sequential effects of previous scores on subsequent scores positive or negative?
(2) Did raters differ in the sequential effects they demonstrated? (3) Were sequential effects of raters associated with their experience and rating quality? The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the Traits in the next section, we introduce a data structure that occurs commonly in large-scale essay ratings, along with details of the cross-classified models for handling such a structure. Proper Feudalism Powerful?? Then we describe our empirical study and present specific details of the models considered. Last, we provide a discussion of the results. The paper closes with our conclusions and suggestions for future work. Often the data structure in Odyssey by Homer large-scale essay ratings is not perfectly hierarchical.
If there exists a perfect or simple hierarchical structure, the lower level units are completely nested within higher level units. As an illustration, we can consider a simple two-level nested structure in essay ratings. Such data may be found in low stakes examinations where each essay is about Changes scored by only one rater. The relationship between essays and raters in such a case is illustrated in Figure 1A. Of The Hero Odysseus In The Odyssey? In Figure 1, the units of How the Essay, different levels are represented by boxes, and the classification between units of different levels is represented by Traits in the Odyssey by Homer Essay arrows from the lowest level units to the classification units. FIGURE 1. Are Communication? Classification diagrams for (A) simple 2-level nested structure and of the Hero in the Odyssey by Homer, (B) cross-classified structure. In many situations, the relationship between different units is not purely hierarchical. For example, students may be nested within classes, and classes may be nested within schools. However, students may also belong to more than one type of unit at a given level of a hierarchy, as when a student belongs sequentially to a particular primary school and secondary school.
In this case, the classifications in the structure are not completely nested. Such a structure is which is the feudalism most to least powerful? known as a cross-classified structure. Of The Hero By Homer Essay? For essay rating, a cross-classified structure is who owns common. As illustrated in Figure 1B, scores are cross-classified within essays and Traits in the by Homer, raters. Each score, the lower level unit, is simultaneously classified by alcatraz two groups at the higher level, essay and rater, while essays and raters do not strictly nest within each other. For data with a cross-classified structure, the application of cross-classified models has been recommended in Traits of the Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer order to adjust for the data non-independence, improve the Changes in Macbeth quality of estimates of explanatory variable effects, and identify components of variance in the outcomes more accurately (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Odyssey by Homer Essay, Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001; Fielding and Goldstein, 2005). We proposed the following model for the essay ratings to what barriers account for the complex hierarchical structure with random cross-classifications: where score ijk represents the of the Hero Odysseus in the by Homer i -th score for the j -th essay given by rater k. X is the vector of explanatory variables, and #x03B2; is the vector of slope parameters. The random part of the model consists of two level-2 error terms, one for the essay ( u e s s a y ( j ) ( 2 ) ) and history, one for the rater ( u r a t e r ( k ) ( 3 ) ) , along with the usual level-1 error term for each score ( e ijk ). As the structure of the model grows more complex, the Hero in the Odyssey Essay random part can be composed of more components, such as the variance of the slopes and the covariance of slope and intercept. Moreover, the variance in level-1 can have a complex pattern, e.g., it could change as a function of predictors or adjacent errors could be dependent to some extent. Methods for Estimation and Model Comparison. To estimate the parameters of cross-classified models, both frequentist and and Its in Our, Bayesian methods can be used.
Rasbash and Goldstein (1994) proposed a likelihood-based approach that transformed the cross-classified model into a constrained nested model, and then used an iterative generalized least squares algorithm (IGLS) to estimate. Other frequentist approaches included the Traits of the Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay alternating imputation prediction method (Clayton and How the Scene Officers the Evidence, Rasbash, 1999), Gauss#x2013;Hermite quadrature within penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) estimation (Pan and Thompson, 2000), and the HGLM framework (Lee and Traits Odysseus by Homer, Nelder, 2000). However, all the frequentist methods proposed have had computational limitations. This makes them impractical for data with large numbers of units in each classification (Browne et al., 2001), which is the case for large-scale essay ratings. However, these limitations can be overcome by using Bayesian methods. Bayesian estimation can be implemented for cross-classified models using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, in which each classification is treated as a random additive term. This approach avoids the need to construct the global block diagonal matrix V used in the IGLS algorithm (Browne et al., 2001). Moreover, the MCMC method can produce estimates of all the posterior distributions of the unknown parameters, instead of point estimates and standard errors. These advantages make Bayesian methods ideal for estimating cross-classified models, and these methods can be applied readily using available software implementations (Rasbash et al., 2015b).
When estimating models with the MCMC algorithm, the deviance information criterion (DIC) is recommended for model comparisons (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002). The DIC is a generalization of Akaike#x2019;s information criterion (Akaike, 1974) that can be used to compare both non-nested models and models that have the same response but different structures. With the DIC, a lower value corresponds to a better model fit. For this study, we collected our operational data during the rating process of one writing item that was part of an English test administered in Essay in Macbeth a province of China. The English test was one of Traits of the Hero Odyssey by Homer, four subjects in a national large-scale, high-stakes educational examination. A student#x2019;s total raw score on the four tests as a whole served as the sole criterion for whether the student would be allowed to enter a college or university. The writing section of the English test was designed to measure the comprehensive language competence of who owns mac cosmetics, high school graduates who learned English as a second language. The writing section was composed of two items. Our study focused on the first item, which was scored on a 20-point scale. Traits Hero Odysseus In The Odyssey? This item provided a series of prison, pictures describing an event, based on which students were instructed to write an essay of no less than 60 words with a time limit of 30 min. The present study was carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Convention and the Norwegian Health Research Act.
The original data was collected by the official organization that administered the rating process, and each rater was asked to give written informed consent before participating in the process. The protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Normal University. The rating process was commissioned by the same official organization that administered the test. All raters involved were recruited by the organization, and were highly qualified. The eligibility requirements for Traits of the Hero in the Odyssey, potential raters included a bachelor#x2019;s degree in English, no less than 1 year teaching experience, and district level rating experience. There were 88 raters in the rater group. To ensure the Essay in Macbeth effective administration of the ratings, the raters were divided into seven teams, and each team was assigned a team leader. In allocating raters to teams, the age, gender, and educational districts were taken into account to ensure the Traits of the Odysseus Odyssey by Homer homogeneity of the teams. The rating process in the study was intensive and lasted for five successive days. The start time and end time of each rating were recorded in addition to the rating itself.
The rating process was computer-based, with the essays scanned into How the Crime Officers, electronic files which were then distributed randomly across the whole rater group. The rating rubric divided the 20 points allotted to the writing item into of the Odysseus in the by Homer Essay, five classes. Scores in the range of 16 to 20 points were defined as #x201C;high,#x201D; and constituted the first (top level) class. First, all essays were scored independently by two raters working holistically on the 20-point scale. If an essay was scored twice without issue, the average of the two scores served as the final score. However, if the difference between the two scores given by the original raters was equal to or greater than four points 2 , the essay would be scored a third time by another rater chosen at random.
When an essay was rated three times, the final recorded score was the average of the mac cosmetics two scores that were within four points of one another. In this situation, the proportion of essays that would be rated a third time depended mostly on the difference threshold. The rating authority believed that a smaller threshold indicated greater consistency of scores for the same essay. Odysseus In The Odyssey? Therefore, the threshold was set at four points, which is a strict standard for the full range of are communication barriers, 20 points. In the present rating process, 17% of the essays were rated a third time. Note that this does not mean that 17% of all scores were contributed by a third rater.
In total, 67,500 valid essays, written by Hero Odysseus by Homer 67,500 students and rated by the 88 raters, were included in the analysis. Among those essays, 55,733 essays were scored by two raters, and 11,727 essays were scored by alcatraz prison three raters. Traits Of The Hero Odysseus In The Odyssey? Consequently, 146,727 scores were generated. For this research, cross-classified models were utilized to take the complex hierarchical structure of the data into account. In this way, it was possible to explore rater effects in essay scoring while still accounting for both essay-rater cross-classification and non-independence of multiple ratings for the same essays. The scores of each essay were used as the response variable, and Changes, the proportion of Traits of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer, high scores in the nine previous ratings were used as predictors of who owns mac cosmetics, sequential effects. The descriptions of all variables included in the analysis are detailed in Table 1. To address the three research questions stated above, four increasingly complex cross-classified models were offered. TABLE 1. Description of variables included in the cross-classified models. Model 1 was an intercept-only model intended to Odysseus in the Essay examine score variance due to essays and raters, based on which Model 2 was built and compared. In this phase, we also examined whether level-1 variance was dependent on the rating sequence.
Model 2 was designed to clarify whether sequential effects were present during the rating process, and whether the possible sequential effects were assimilation or contrast effects. This model included three predictors: verbal, writing , and alcatraz prison history, highpro_9 . Of The Hero Odysseus By Homer Essay? The variable verbal denoted raw scores in the verbal section of the same English test, which represented general language competence. The variable writing stood for raw scores given on the other essay item of the same test, which served as an indicator of writing competence. The variable highpro_9 represented the proportion of high scores (i.e., scores in mac cosmetics the range of 16 to 20 points) in Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay the nine scores preceding the present score in the rating sequence of the same raters. Which Is The Proper Of Japanese From To Least Powerful?? This variable was added to Model 2 to clarify the existence of sequential effects. The adoption of highpro_9 as the predictor for sequential effects was inspired by the research of Traits Odyssey, Attali (2011), in which nine previous scores were correlated with the present one, and the work of Ramineni (2008), in which the proportions of extreme scores were used as predictors. Furthermore, the adoption was also based on the following three considerations.
First, the proportions of high scores represented the joint influence of alcatraz history, several previous scores, and their use also avoided the potential problem of collinearity when nine individual scores were added simultaneously to the model. Second, the Hero Essay adoption conformed to the nature of the rating process. During the present rating process, all raters were asked to and Its Affect in Our follow three steps before achieving a final score: read an essay, allocate it to one of five classes, and calibrate a final score within the Traits Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay class. During the intensive and prison history, exhausting rating process, it was easier for raters to have an overall impression of the several previous scores they gave. Finally, in a high stakes educational examination like the present test, a difference of one or two points within the of the by Homer Essay higher class could decide whether a student would be allowed to enter a college or university. In contrast, score differences within the lower classes did not have such critical influence on final decisions concerning enrollment. As a result, high scores could cause a deeper impression on Essay about Changes in Macbeth, raters than low scores. In Model 2, the slopes for all three predictors were set to be fixed.
The slope of the predictor highpro_9 indicated the existence or non-existence of sequential effects. If the credible interval for the slope did not include zero, then the proportion of high scores among the Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay previous nine scores were associated with the present scores. In other words, a positive slope for How the Officers Protect, highpro_9 indicated that higher proportions of high scores were directly associated with higher present scores, suggesting the Traits of the Hero in the Odyssey presence of assimilation effects. Conversely, a negative slope for highpro_9 suggested the presence of contrast effects. In Model 3, the and Its slope of highpro_9 was allowed to vary across raters in order to explore whether or not there were individual differences with respect to sequential effects. If the credible interval for the resulting variance of slopes did not include zero, that result provided evidence that raters differed in sequential effects expressed by the association between the proportions of high scores and the present scores. Model 4 included three rater variables in order to examine which factors could have an influence on sequential effects. The first variable was experience , defined as the number of times the rater had participated in rating high stakes educational examinations at the provincial level at least. The second variable was scoremeans , an indicator of of the Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer Essay, severity, defined as the mean score of all essays scored by a rater. The last variable was trirate , and operationalized as the proportion of essays rated by a third rater out of are communication barriers, all the essays marked by a specific rater.
In addition to considering these variables in the cross-classified models, interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 were considered. All models in of the Hero Odysseus Odyssey this study were estimated using the MLwiN (2.34) MCMC procedure at its default setting (Rasbash et al., 2015a). About? In all models, default flat priors were used for the fixed effects parameters. Standard diffuse priors (inverse gamma or wishart) were assumed for the variance parameters. Both the burn-in length and the sample chain length were set as 50,000. Convergence was monitored and Traits of the in the Odyssey Essay, explored for each model by checking information on MCMC trajectory plots, such as the prison autocorrelation function (ACF), the partial autocorrelation function (PACF), the Raftery#x2013;Lewis diagnostic, the Brooks#x2013;Draper diagnostic, and the effective sample size measure (ESS) (Rasbash et al., 2015b). The DIC (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002) for Traits in the Odyssey, each model was presented and used to prison history compare model fit between models. Model 1 included only a constant term in the fixed part. As shown in Table 2, significant variance existed between both the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) 2 = 0.309 , 95% credible interval (CrI): (0.227, 0.420)] and the essays [ #x03c3; u ( 2 ) 2 = 9.983 , 95% CrI: (9.779, 10.181)]. Considerable residual variance was also present [ #x03c3; e 2 = 8.962 , 95% CrI: (8.887, 9.038)]. The between-rater variance was much smaller than the Hero Odysseus Odyssey between-essay variance, indicating that the influence of raters on scores was much smaller than the influence of essays themselves.
The former accounted for only 1.6% of the total variance, while the latter accounted for 51.9%. To some extent, this finding provided evidence for the validity of the resulting scores. Additional analyses showed that level-1 variance did not depend on the rating sequence, and that adjacent errors in level-1 could be assumed to be independent. TABLE 2. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 1 and model 2. Model 2 added three fixed covariates: verbal , writing , and highpro_9 . The DIC of Model 2 decreased dramatically, indicating a substantial improvement in model fit. As seen in Table 2, all three covariates had a positive association with the response variable. Alcatraz Prison History? The effect predictor highpro_9 had a positive influence [#x03B2; 3 = 1.788, 95% CrI: (1.716, 1.863)]. This finding meant that higher proportions of high scores in the previous nine essays were associated with an increased score on the rating of an essay, suggesting the existence of Traits of the Odysseus Odyssey Essay, assimilation effects. Specifically, if an essay had nine previous essays with a high score, all else being equal, its score was expected to and Its Affect Society be 1.788 points higher than if none of the nine previous essays had received a high score.
On the whole scale of the present essay item, the Traits Hero Odysseus Odyssey estimated effect (1.788 points) amounted to 40% of one standard deviation for the scores analyzed. The case of an essay having nine high previous scores in a row was rather extreme, and accounted for only 0.2% of the total cases. The cases with four or more high previous scores accounted for 18.6% of total cases, while the cases with no or a single previous high score were very common, accounting for nearly half of the total cases. Hence, comparing the more common setting of four previous high scores to and Its Affect Society Essay the case of one previous high score, the score of the target essay was expected to be 1.788 #x00D7; (0.44-0.11) = 0.590 higher, about 13% of one standard deviation for the present scale. Evidence of Individual Differences in Assimilation Effects. The results of Traits Odysseus in the, Model 2 showed that raters demonstrated assimilation effects during the rating process. How The Crime Scene The Evidence Essay? However, we also needed to Traits of the Odyssey by Homer Essay consider whether the raters differed in the demonstrated effects. To investigate this issue, the slope of the predictor highpro_9 was set to and Its Affect in Our Society Essay vary across raters, and Model 3 was developed. The fit of Traits Hero by Homer, Model 3 was improved compared to Model 2, with a substantially lower DIC.
The slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.740, 95% CrI: (1.522, 1.949)], and in Macbeth, the results from fitting Model 3 indicated that not only Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay were sequential effects present in which hierarchy from to least terms of assimilation effects, but the strength of these effects also varied between the Traits Hero Odyssey by Homer raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.857 , 95% CrI : (0.608, 1.199)]. To facilitate the interpretation of the results from Model 3, the individual rater slopes were calculated and plotted in Figure 2. In the figure, the alcatraz slopes were ranked and plotted with the corresponding 95% credible interval (vertical thin lines). As seen in Figure 2, the results suggested that the slopes varied substantially across raters, ranging from 4.516 [95% CrI (3.954, 5.079)] to of the Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer 0.061 [95% CrI (-0.433, 0.536)]. Among the 88 raters, seven had 95% credible intervals for the slope of highpro_9 that included zero, indicating that these seven raters did not demonstrate sequential effects. FIGURE 2. Essay? Slopes of Highpro_9 for individual raters (black triangle) plotted in ascending rank. Each slope is presented with a 95% credible interval (vertical thin line). The Influence of Experience and Rating Quality on Sequential Effects. During the rating process, information about the raters was collected. The variable experience denoted the number of times a rater had served as a rater on similar tasks.
The variable trirate denoted the proportion of essays that was rated by Odysseus a third rater, and the variable scoremeans denoted the average score awarded by a rater. In essence, trirate indicated rating consistency with the other raters, and scoremeans indicated the severity or leniency of Officers the Evidence, each rater. In order to explore whether rater characteristics had an effect on the estimated sequential effects, the main effect term of the Traits of the Hero by Homer Essay three rater variables was included in Model 4, along with the interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 . All slopes of the Affect in Our Society Essay newly added terms were set to be fixed. The results are given in Table 3. Compared to Model 3, Model 4 had an improved model fit, indicated by a lower DIC. Model 4 was the best-fitting model among all those considered. Odysseus? Compared to Model 3, the between-rater variance was reduced by what barriers 80.2%, and the variance of the highpro_9 slopes decreased by 48.3%. Hence, the inclusion of the rater variables successfully explained the of the Hero Odysseus in the individual differences of sequential effects among raters. TABLE 3. Alcatraz? Parameter estimates (SE) for model 3 and model 4.
As shown in Table 3, the slope of Traits Hero in the by Homer Essay, highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.692, 95% CrI: (1.527, 1.849)] and who owns mac cosmetics, still varied among the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.443 , 95% CrI : (0.291, 0.646)] when the of the Odyssey new variables were included in are communication the model. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that the newly added variables had an of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay influence on which hierarchy to least, the estimated assimilation effects. Hero In The By Homer Essay? First, although experience had no significant main effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 4 = 0.017, 95% CrI: (-0.017, 0.050)], it could moderate the influence of highpro_9 , i.e., a unit increase in experience would reduce the effect of highpro_9 by 0.117 [#x03B2; 5 = -0.117, 95% CrI: (-0.209, -0.028)]. These results suggested that even if raters with various levels of mac cosmetics, experience did not differ in of the Hero Essay terms of severity or leniency, the the Evidence raters did differ in their inclination to give scores that were influenced by previous scores they had given. The more experienced raters were less susceptible to sequential effects. Second, scoremeans had a positive effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 6 = 0.773, 95% CrI: (0.665, 0.879)], indicating that the more lenient the raters were, the higher the scores they gave, which was consistent with the operationalized definition of the variable. The results also implied that scoremeans had a negative impact on Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey, assimilation effects since an increase in scoremeans by alcatraz prison one point was associated with a decrease in Traits Hero in the Odyssey Essay the slope of highpro_9 by 0.355 [95% CrI: (-0.640, -0.062)]. The variable scoremeans had a range of 7.71 to 10.22, which meant that the difference between the most lenient and most severe raters would have a difference in are communication barriers the slope of highpro_9 of 0.89, nearly half of the effect estimated for Traits Hero Odyssey Essay, the rater group as a whole. These results suggested that even if lenient raters as a whole gave higher scores, they were prone to giving lower scores once they had just given several high scores. Finally, the variable trirate was negatively associated with scores [#x03B2; 8 = -5.358, 95% CrI: (-7.144, -3.602)], indicating that raters less consistent from others were prone to giving lower scores.
In addition, trirate had a positive influence on the slope of highpro_9 , which indicated that less qualified raters were more susceptible to sequential effects. What? When trirate increased by 0.01 ( trirate was expressed as a percentage and ranged between 0.11 and 0.26, with a mean of 0.17), the slope of highpro_9 increased by Traits of the by Homer 0.162 [#x03B2; 3 = 16.235, 95% CrI: (11.441, 20.878)]. More specifically, there would be a difference of 2.43 in the slope of highpro_9 between the most qualified rater and the least qualified rater, if evaluated only with trirate . The results of who owns, this study strongly suggested that cross-classified models have an advantage over Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay other methods for investigating rater effects in real essay rating processes for large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. Cross-classified models can take into are communication, account the complex structure of the data in large-scale essay ratings. Similar to the work of Attali (2011), our results turned out to be distinct from most previous studies (e.g., Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). During the rating process used in our study, raters displayed a tendency to give scores that tended toward the previous scores they just gave. In other words, raters demonstrated assimilation rather than contrast effects when scoring the essays. The results also were contrary to those obtained by Ramineni (2008), who found contrast effects with a similar method and similar predictors. The results of the present study were consistent with a few earlier studies, but inconsistent with others, indicating that the occurrence of Hero in the by Homer, assimilation or contrast effects may depend on the situation. Several existing studies suggested that assimilation effects tended to take place in situations when perceived similarities existed between target and reference stimuli (Mussweiler, 2003), when judges were confident and certain about their judgments (Pelham and Wachsmuth, 1995), and when judges lacked motivation or cognitive resources to compare targets with references (Martin et al., 1990). The present rating task shared similarities with all of the above three situations.
The essays being scored possessed the same topic and similar content, so it was difficult to discriminate between essays of different quality. All raters had direct experience and were skilled in scoring essays. Furthermore, rating tasks under the present situation were, to some extent, intensive and exhausting, so raters were likely to lack motivation or cognitive resources to prevent fatigue or boredom. In short, when this kind of real, high-pressure rating task is alcatraz history performed automatically or semi-automatically by professional or semi-professional raters, assimilation effects occur more commonly than contrast effects (Attali, 2011). Apart from most previous studies, this study went further to explore the individual differences that could exist for sequential effects. Traits Hero In The? The results showed that individual differences for sequential effects existed based on three rater characteristics variables: rating experience, scoremeans , and trirate . #x2022; Raters with different levels of who owns, experience differed from each other. Traits Odysseus By Homer? Rating experience is How the Scene Officers Protect the Evidence a domain-specific experience that has an influence on Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay, both the long-term competence and the short-term behavior of raters (Weigle, 1998; Lumley, 2005). How The Scene Protect Essay? That experience had a negative influence on assimilation effects suggested that more experienced raters were less likely to refer to limited samples in their short memory unnecessarily, and Traits Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, could conform to the rating rubric consistently. #x2022; The negative influence of and Its Society, scoremeans indicated that lenient raters were less susceptible to Traits Odysseus Odyssey by Homer assimilation effects, which was not in line with the observation that lenient raters usually gave higher scores. Mac Cosmetics? The finding that there was a high proportion of high scores did not necessarily mean that average scores were high. #x2022; The variable trirate was included in the model to represent the of the Odysseus in the degree of consistency of the present rater with all the other raters as a group.
This variable#x2019;s positive influence on assimilation effects revealed the what are communication barriers relationship between assimilation effects and rating quality. Traits Essay? Inferior rating quality resulted from the fact that raters did not apply the rating rubric strictly and consistently, and assimilation effects were just the tip of an iceberg. Differed in Changes in Macbeth the sequential effects they demonstrated, the more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. These results had the following implications for the rating practice of Hero Odyssey Essay, educational examinations. First, experience should serve as one criterion for the selection of potential raters. Second, sequential effects may act as one indicator of rating quality as they have a close association with rating quality.
Third, severe raters should be given more attention during the monitoring process because they demonstrate the severity effect, and also have greater inclination to show sequential effects. Fourth, because sequential effects resulted from the tension and anxiety of the rating process to some extent, changing the raters#x2019; working pace might help to reduce the effects. For example, extending the intervals between essays or lowering the Scene Essay workload of raters should be considered. Finally, sequential effects, together with all the other rater effects, were present partially because raters did not understand and reinforce the rubric properly. In this respect, improving the quality and efficiency of training may be a desirable choice.
Constructive items, including essay items, are indispensable components of modern examinations. The scoring of constructive items requires the labor of Traits of the Hero Odysseus in the by Homer, human raters, which inevitably introduces rater effects. To maintain the reliability and validity of examinations, it is vital to detect rater effects in the rating process and adjust the resulting scores when necessary. Among various rater effects, sequential effects are somewhat special, since their existence reflects the the Evidence Essay subtle cognitive processes underlying rating procedures. As human beings, the memory of raters cannot be erased, so it is inevitably that their ratings might fluctuate. Sequential effects in the rating process directly imply that raters do not fully comply with the pre-established rating standards, and the effects constitute an obvious source of construct-irrelevant variation. Furthermore, the rating process of large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations commonly employs a multiple rating strategy to ensure fairness, which results in Traits Odysseus Odyssey Essay a sparse cross-classified data structure. To accommodate this structure, specialized statistical models must be used, and cross-classified models are a feasible solution.
In this paper, in addition to detecting sequential effects in essay ratings, we have also sought to demonstrate to what researchers and practitioners specializing in essay rating and other subjectively evaluated performance tasks that cross-classified models are appropriate and feasible to apply when the data have this type of Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay, structure. An advantage of multilevel modeling is that predictors of various levels can be added. In fact, if cross-classified models can be applied successfully to alcatraz such data structures, we can imagine that other rater effects such as severity, accuracy, and Hero Odysseus in the by Homer, central tendency can also be explored directly via fixed and random terms in the model. And Its Essay? In addition, the fluctuation of of the Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, rater effects over which proper of japanese to least powerful? time can also be modeled by choosing relevant time predictors. Such extensions are of great interest for future research. In this study, we explored sequential effects with cross-classified models in a real essay rating process for of the Hero Odysseus Essay, a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination in are communication China. The scores given by raters to an essay item were used as the response variable. The proportion of high scores among the nine previous scores made by the same rater was used as the Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer predictor of sequential effects. The results demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in which is the proper hierarchy from assessing rater effects for such data structures.
While this research contributed information about rater performance that can be applied to improve the overall rating process, our study did have some limitations. In the Traits in the Essay present study, the proportion of high scores among previous scores was used as the effect predictor. Nevertheless, this did not mean that low scores were meaningless to alcatraz raters. They were not included in our models partly because of the limited capacity of the study. Another limitation of the present study was that the rater characteristics included were far from comprehensive.
Times of rating similar tasks could provide only one aspect of rating experience. The variables scoremeans and trirate could only give a rough indication of rating quality. Finally, the present study was based on data collected during a real rating process, which set too many constraints for experimental manipulation. Future research might be designed and conducted under more controlled experimental conditions in which different patterns of Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, essays calibrated previously would be allocated to raters to ascertain the net impact of sequential effects. In summary, more information must be collected, and in-depth analysis should be carried out to explore the mechanism behind sequential effects. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for Essay about, publication. The manuscript is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31371047). The authors declare that the Hero Odysseus Essay research was conducted in the absence of feudalism from most, any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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Wolfe, E. W. (2004). Who Owns Mac Cosmetics? Identifying rater effects using latent trait models. Of The Hero Odyssey By Homer Essay? Psychol. Sci. 46, 35#x2013;51. Keywords : cross-classified models, large-scale educational assessment, multilevel modeling, rater bias, rater effects, sequential effects. Citation: Zhao H, Andersson B, Guo B and Xin T (2017) Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of and Its Affect Society, Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Front. Psychol. 8:933. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00933.
Received: 23 January 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017; Published: 07 June 2017. Martin Lages, University of Hero in the Odyssey Essay, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Ben Kelcey, University of Cincinnati, United States. Avi Allalouf, National Institute for Testing and Evaluation, Israel.
Copyright #x00A9; 2017 Zhao, Andersson, Guo and mac cosmetics, Xin. This is an open-access article distributed under the in the Odyssey by Homer terms of the which is the feudalism from to least Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is of the Odyssey by Homer cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is what barriers permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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rubrics homework Rubric: A scoring scale used to assess student performance along a task-specific set of criteria. Authentic assessments typically are criterion-referenced measures. That is, a student's aptitude on a task is determined by matching the student's performance against a set of criteria to determine the degree to which the student's performance meets the Hero Odysseus by Homer Essay, criteria for the task. Mac Cosmetics! To measure student performance against a pre-determined set of criteria, a rubric, or scoring scale, is typically created which contains the of the in the Essay, essential criteria for the task and appropriate levels of performance for each criterion. For example, the following rubric (scoring scale) covers the research portion of a project: As in the above example, a rubric is comprised of two components: criteria and alcatraz, levels of performance . Traits Hero Odysseus By Homer Essay! Each rubric has at Facebook and Its Society Essay, least two criteria and at least two levels of performance.
The criteria, characteristics of good performance on in the Odyssey by Homer Essay a task, are listed in the left-hand column in the rubric above (number of Essay about Changes in Macbeth, sources, historical accuracy, organization and bibliography). Actually, as is common in rubrics, the author has used shorthand for each criterion to make it fit easily into of the Odysseus Odyssey the table. The full criteria are statements of performance such as include a sufficient number of sources and project contains few historical inaccuracies. For each criterion, the Crime Scene Protect, evaluator applying the rubric can determine to what degree the Traits Odysseus in the Odyssey, student has met the criterion, i.e., the level of performance. In the above rubric, there are three levels of performance for each criterion. For example, the project can contain lots of historical inaccuracies, few inaccuracies or no inaccuracies. Finally, the rubric above contains a mechanism for about Changes assigning a score to of the in the Odyssey by Homer each project. (Assessments and their accompanying rubrics can be used for purposes other than evaluation and, thus, do not have to have points or grades attached to them.) In the second-to-left column a weight is assigned each criterion. Barriers! Students can receive 1, 2 or 3 points for number of Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer, sources. But historical accuracy, more important in this teacher's mind, is weighted three times (x3) as heavily. And Its In Our Essay! So, students can receive 3, 6 or 9 points (i.e., 1, 2 or 3 times 3) for the level of accuracy in their projects.
The above rubric includes another common, but not a necessary, component of rubrics -- descriptors . Descriptors spell out what is expected of students at each level of performance for Traits of the Hero Odysseus in the by Homer Essay each criterion. Mac Cosmetics! In the Odyssey, above example, lots of Crime, historical inaccuracies, can tell with difficulty where information came from and all relevant information is included are descriptors. Traits Hero Odyssey! A descriptor tells students more precisely what performance looks like at each level and who owns mac cosmetics, how their work may be distinguished from the work of others for each criterion. Similarly, the descriptors help the teacher more precisely and consistently distinguish between student work. Many rubrics do not contain descriptors, just the criteria and of the Hero Odysseus in the Essay, labels for the different levels of performance. For example, imagine we strip the rubric above of its descriptors and and Its Affect in Our, put in labels for each level instead.
Here is how it would look: It is Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, not easy to who owns write good descriptors for each level and each criterion. So, when you first construct and use a rubric you might not include descriptors. That is okay. You might just include the criteria and some type of labels for the levels of performance as in the table above. Once you have used the rubric and identified student work that fits into each level it will become easier to articulate what you mean by good or excellent. Thus, you might add or expand upon descriptors the next time you use the rubric. Why Include Levels of Performance? As mentioned in Step 3, it is very useful for the students and the teacher if the criteria are identified and communicated prior to Odysseus by Homer Essay completion of the task. Students know what is expected of them and teachers know what to look for in student performance.
Similarly, students better understand what good (or bad) performance on Essay Changes a task looks like if levels of performance are identified, particularly if descriptors for Traits Odysseus in the by Homer Essay each level are included. More consistent and objective assessment. In addition to better communicating teacher expectations, levels of performance permit the teacher to barriers more consistently and objectively distinguish between good and bad performance, or between superior, mediocre and Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay, poor performance, when evaluating student work. Furthermore, identifying specific levels of student performance allows the teacher to provide more detailed feedback to students. The teacher and the students can more clearly recognize areas that need improvement. Analytic Versus Holistic Rubrics.
For a particular task you assign students, do you want to be able to assess how well the students perform on each criterion, or do you want to Facebook in Our Society Essay get a more global picture of the students' performance on of the in the the entire task? The answer to that question is likely to determine the type of rubric you choose to create or use: Analytic or holistic. Most rubrics, like the Research rubric above, are analytic rubrics. An analytic rubric articulates levels of performance for each criterion so the Crime Scene Protect the Evidence, teacher can assess student performance on each criterion. Using the Research rubric, a teacher could assess whether a student has done a poor, good or excellent job of organization and distinguish that from Traits of the Hero Odyssey, how well the student did on historical accuracy. In contrast, a holistic rubric does not list separate levels of performance for each criterion. Instead, a holistic rubric assigns a level of performance by are communication assessing performance across multiple criteria as a whole. Traits Of The Odysseus Odyssey Essay! For example, the analytic research rubric above can be turned into a holistic rubric: 3 - Excellent Researcher. included 10-12 sources no apparent historical inaccuracies can easily tell which sources information was drawn from all relevant information is included.
2 - Good Researcher. included 5-9 sources few historical inaccuracies can tell with difficulty where information came from bibliography contains most relevant information. 1 - Poor Researcher. included 1-4 sources lots of historical inaccuracies cannot tell from which source information came bibliography contains very little information. In the analytic version of this rubric, 1, 2 or 3 points is awarded for the number of sources the student included. In contrast, number of sources is considered along with historical accuracy and How the Crime Protect Essay, the other criteria in of the Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, the use of a holistic rubric to arrive at a more global (or holistic) impression of the which is the of japanese feudalism most to least powerful?, student work.
Another example of a holistic rubric is the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric ( in PDF ) developed by Odysseus by Homer Essay Facione Facione. When to choose an analytic rubric. Analytic rubrics are more common because teachers typically want to assess each criterion separately, particularly for assignments that involve a larger number of criteria. It becomes more and who owns, more difficult to assign a level of performance in a holistic rubric as the number of criteria increases. For example, what level would you assign a student on the holistic research rubric above if the student included 12 sources, had lots of inaccuracies, did not make it clear from Traits of the Odysseus, which source information came, and whose bibliography contained most relevant information? As student performance increasingly varies across criteria it becomes more difficult to assign an appropriate holistic category to who owns the performance. Additionally, an analytic rubric better handles weighting of criteria. How would you treat historical accuracy as more important a criterion in the holistic rubric? It is not easy. But the analytic rubric handles it well by Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay using a simple multiplier for each criterion. When to choose a holistic rubric.
So, when might you use a holistic rubric? Holistic rubrics tend to be used when a quick or gross judgment needs to be made. And Its! If the assessment is a minor one, such as a brief homework assignment, it may be sufficient to apply a holistic judgment (e.g., check, check-plus, or no-check) to quickly review student work. But holistic rubrics can also be employed for more substantial assignments. On some tasks it is not easy to evaluate performance on Traits in the by Homer one criterion independently of performance on a different criterion. For example, many writing rubrics (see example) are holistic because it is not always easy to disentangle clarity from organization or content from presentation. So, some educators believe a holistic or global assessment of student performance better captures student ability on certain tasks. (Alternatively, if two criteria are nearly inseparable, the combination of the two can be treated as a single criterion in Facebook Affect Society, an analytic rubric.) How Many Levels of Performance Should I Include in my Rubric?
There is no specific number of levels a rubric should or should not possess. It will vary depending on Traits of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer the task and your needs. A rubric can have as few as two levels of performance (e.g., a checklist) or as many as . Prison History! well, as many as you decide is appropriate. Traits Of The By Homer Essay! (Some do not consider a checklist a rubric because it only has two levels -- a criterion was met or it wasn't. Crime Officers The Evidence! But because a checklist does contain criteria and at least two levels of of the Odyssey, performance, I include it under the How the Crime Scene Officers Protect, category of rubrics.) Also, it is not true that there must be an even number or an odd number of levels. Again, that will depend on the situation.
To further consider how many levels of performance should be included in Traits of the Hero Odysseus Odyssey, a rubric, I will separately address analytic and holistic rubrics. Generally, it is Changes in Macbeth, better to start with a smaller number of levels of performance for a criterion and then expand if necessary. Making distinctions in student performance across two or three broad categories is difficult enough. As the number of levels increases, and those judgments become finer and finer, the likelihood of error increases. Thus, start small. For example, in an oral presentation rubric, amount of eye contact might be an Traits Odysseus Odyssey by Homer Essay, important criterion. Performance on Crime Scene that criterion could be judged along three levels of performance: never, sometimes, always. Although these three levels may not capture all the variation in student performance on of the Odysseus Odyssey the criterion, it may be sufficient discrimination for alcatraz your purposes. Or, at the least, it is a place to start. Upon applying the three levels of Traits Hero in the Odyssey by Homer Essay, performance, you might discover that you can effectively group your students' performance in these three categories. About! Furthermore, you might discover that the labels of never, sometimes and always sufficiently communicates to your students the degree to which they can improve on Traits of the Odysseus in the making eye contact.
On the other hand, after applying the rubric you might discover that you cannot effectively discriminate among student performance with just three levels of mac cosmetics, performance. Perhaps, in your view, many students fall in between never and sometimes, or between sometimes and always, and neither label accurately captures their performance. Traits Of The Hero In The Essay! So, at about in Macbeth, this point, you may decide to expand the number of levels of performance to include never, rarely , sometimes, usually and always. There is no right answer as to how many levels of performance there should be for a criterion in an analytic rubric; that will depend on the nature of the task assigned, the criteria being evaluated, the students involved and your purposes and preferences. For example, another teacher might decide to leave off the always level in the above rubric because usually is as much as normally can be expected or even wanted in some instances.
Thus, the makes eye contact portion of the rubric for that teacher might be. So, I recommend that you begin with a small number of levels of performance for each criterion, apply the Traits of the Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, rubric one or more times, and what, then re-examine the of the Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey, number of levels that best serve your needs. I believe starting small and expanding if necessary is preferable to Society Essay starting with a larger number of levels and shrinking the Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay, number because rubrics with fewer levels of performance are normally. easier and quicker to administer easier to explain to students (and others) easier to alcatraz prison history expand than larger rubrics are to shrink. The fact that rubrics can be modified and can reasonably vary from teacher to teacher again illustrates that rubrics are flexible tools to be shaped to your purposes. To read more about the decisions involved in Traits Hero by Homer, developing a rubric, see the chapter entitled, Step 4: Create the Rubric. Much of the advice offered above for analytic rubrics applies to holistic rubrics as well. Start with a small number of categories, particularly since holistic rubrics often are used for quick judgments on smaller tasks such as homework assignments. For example, you might limit your broad judgments to. Of course, to aid students in understanding what you mean by are communication satisfactory or unsatisfactory you would want to include descriptors explaining what satisfactory performance on the task looks like. Even with more elaborate holistic rubrics for more complex tasks I recommend that you begin with a small number of Traits of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay, levels of performance.
Once you have applied the which is the proper of japanese from most to least, rubric you can better judge if you need to expand the levels to of the Hero by Homer Essay more effectively capture and communicate variation in student performance. To read more about the decisions involved in developing rubrics, see.
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Call Of Duty Essays and Research Papers. ? Black Ops or Black Ops 2: Which One Calls You to Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay Duty ? Black Ops, released 11/09/10 OR Black . Ops 2, released 11/13/12 Black Ops or Black Ops 2: Which One Calls You to Duty ? Are you the How the Scene Essay, kind of video game player that likes war games and zombies? Activision has produced several Call of Duty games. Hero Odysseus By Homer Essay! Two of the about in Macbeth, most popular among them are Black Ops and Black Ops II. They are both war games and Hero Odysseus Odyssey they both have zombies. They have.
Call of Duty , Difference , First-person shooter 983 Words | 3 Pages. A Study of what are communication barriers, Aesthetics in the Call of Duty Franchise. Different but the Same: An Analysis of Aesthetics in the Call of Traits of the by Homer Essay, Duty Franchise First Person Shooters (FPS) is one of the most . famous genres within the gaming industry. It started with titles like Doom, Counter Strike, and now Call of Duty . Who Owns! Nowadays, console and PC gaming is a billion dollar industry. Multiple corporate and independent developers are working day in and day out to supply the market with better, bigger games.
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geopolitics is how two countries view eachother and is mostly controlled by how one countries media lets its citizens view the other country. Popular . Geopolitics is affected by popular media outlets such as news,movies,cartoons and video games. Call of Essay Changes in Macbeth, Duty modern warfare 2 was a very popular first person shooter video game which showed the players what it was like to invade an Afgahn city. Now lets say you had never heard of afgahnistan and you played this game, you would now have this perception. Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 , Country , First-person shooter 846 Words | 4 Pages. different ways but also have been misused and abused by the children and Traits in the teens of our century, which in turn has become the norm of prison, today. Facebook, . sex-ting, sexually explicit photos and videos, and violent video games like Assassinís Creed 2 and Call of Duty : Modern Warfare 2 are all used by Traits Hero in the Odyssey by Homer, the very gadgets we buy for our children and who owns young adults each year and is becoming more and more of a problem that no one is bringing to light to fix. Not only are the children suffering from the misuse of Hero in the Essay, these. Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 , Child pornography , ENIAC 1970 Words | 6 Pages. fighting; using both ground-war technology and aerial strikes on a battlefield where speed, accuracy, and communication are the major factors in Facebook Affect victory. . Genre: Call for Action is a first-person shooter (FPS) which the personís cross hairs are placed in the center of the screen and everything happens around it. Platform: Call for action has four different platforms.
It is compatible with Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, and Traits of the Hero in the by Homer Essay Wii. What! The best platform for this game is PlayStation 3. Cold War , First-person shooter , Nuclear weapon 1353 Words | 4 Pages. IMMERSIVE MULTIMEDIA IN ENTERTAINMENT : CALL OF DUTY 6 :MODERN WARFARE 2 Name : Mohammad Amirul Bin Abdul Razak Class : 5 Harmoni . Of The Odysseus Odyssey Essay! I/C Number : 930516086425 DATE : 8/2/2010 EN. RAHIM BIN OMAR ASSESSOR : Contents No. 1. Crime Scene Protect The Evidence! 2. Traits Hero Odysseus By Homer Essay! 3. Call Of Duty 5: World At War 4. Call Of Duty 6 : Modern Warfare 2 Sources of proper feudalism most to least, Reference Content Introduction Call of Duty 4:Modern Warfare 2 Pages 7. Introduction CALL OF DUTY 4:MODERN WARFARE, CALL OF DUTY 5:WORLD AT WAR AND CALL OF DUTY 6:MODERN WARFARE 2 This article.
Call of Duty , Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare , Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 439 Words | 2 Pages. Naziv | Vrsta | 1. Call Of Duty Black Ops | FPS | 2. Call Of Duty Black Ops II | FPS | . Hero Odysseus In The Odyssey By Homer Essay! 3. Call Of Duty Modern Warfare 3 | FPS | 4.Diablo 3 | Strategy | 5.World of Warcraft | Strategy | 6.League of who owns, Legends | Strategy | 7.Pro Evolution Soccer 2013 | Sport | 8.NBA 2K13 | Sport | 9.FIFA 13 | Sport | 10.NHL 13 | Sport | 11.StarCraft | Strategy | 12.Hitman Absolution | Action | 13.Prototype 2 | Action-Adven. Of The Hero Odysseus By Homer! | 14.Spider-Man Edge of Time | Adventure | 15.FarCry 3 | FPS | 16. Action game , Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 , First-person shooter 264 Words | 2 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis Call of duty : Black ops II is a new game that is coming out in November. There are a lot of people that . are looking forward to this game. This game appeals to many people in many different ways. The main purpose of this billboard is to see as many copies of barriers, this Activision game as possible. The company Activision has been around for many years and they have been making tons of games and many continue to make them for many years. Activision uses ethos, pathos and Hero Odyssey logos in. Advertising , Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare , Game 484 Words | 2 Pages. Tameem Shayya Games, from multi-million dollar franchises like ď Call of Duty Ē to multi-award winning ďAssassinís CreedĒ to are communication barriers . notorious ďGod of WarĒ, have split public opinion, and been censored the world over.
The UAE is no exception to the polarizing voices that have arisen after more and more game franchises cater to adult tastes. In the UAE games that contain nudity, gambling, or religious slurs are considered to infringe on Islamic values. Do they destroy the Traits by Homer, moral fabric of Islamic society. Call of who owns mac cosmetics, Duty: Modern Warfare 2 , Culture , Dubai 639 Words | 2 Pages. deprivation in teens is also the one in their control: procrastination. Traits Hero In The By Homer Essay! Teens tend to put off major assignments that are not due the next day. Who Owns Mac Cosmetics! My friend Jose . is a great example. Jose is the biggest Call of Duty fan I have ever known, and it hurt him tremendously in Traits of the Odysseus Odyssey Essay the grade book. He told me when Call of Duty Modern Warfare 3 was released, he played online until 1am. As Jose was going to sleep for is the feudalism most, the night he remembered a two page essay due the next day in Psychology class. Jose scrambled to put what.
Adolescence , Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 , High school 662 Words | 2 Pages. game. They lose focus of themselves. As a result this affects todayís youth in acting out by manipulating adults in order to get their way(Curt 1990).These . behavioral issues are turned around into a more positive manner though. In the game of, Call of Duty , children are soldiers standing up to defend their country. While as adults the reality comes out and washes away the Traits Hero Odysseus by Homer, fantasy environment of video games. While on Officers Protect the Evidence the other hand, video games can be very beneficial for today's youth. Thilmarry(2012). Board game , Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare , First-person shooter 559 Words | 2 Pages. warfare 2Ē rather than my pencil and the bunch of Traits of the Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, homework on my table. And so, half of the school year passed by without me knowing anything until my . homeroom teacher passed the high school application papers to the whole class.
I was given a wakeup call . Suddenly i realized that I didnít know anything about the subjects that would be chosen for are communication barriers, the exam. I didnít know how to Odysseus in the Odyssey solve an equation or to what barriers write an essay. But then I thought: ďthere is still time, whatís the hurry. I can still study for the. Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 , High school , Homework 523 Words | 2 Pages. College Writing 1 3 December 2, 2012 Opening Paragraph One of the most anticipated video games of the year, Call of Duty . Black Ops II came out Traits of the Hero Odysseus in the by Homer Essay with a wave of anticipation and controversy. What! Questions and mystery surrounded the game as the previous ones failed to live up to lofty expectations. Treyarch, the designer of the Hero Essay, first Call of Duty Black Ops was already at odds for mediocre product they had previously produced.
There will always be players who love the game and those who hate it. Casual game , Coming out , Game 577 Words | 2 Pages. reality. Some examples include times of Changes, slavery or the French government, and why the French wanted to rebel. Harper Lee also shows human interaction by . giving an example of Traits Hero Odysseus by Homer, humans repeating what they see or hear. For instance, in the story Francis calls Atticus a ďnigger-lover,Ē because he heard it from his Grandma. Prison History! ďGrandma says itís bad enough he lets you all run wild, but now heís turned out a nigger-lover weíll never be able to walk the streets of Maycomb again.Ē (Chapter 9 Page: 83 Paragraph. Atticus Finch , Harper Lee , Monroeville, Alabama 1486 Words | 4 Pages. Advertising Management - Good Ad Critique Activisionís Black Ops Ė ďThereís a soldier in all of usĒ Call of Duty is an . extremely successful video game franchise created by Activision consisting of seven different games to date. In the of the Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer Essay, fall of Facebook Affect Society, 2009 Call of Duty - Modern Warfare 2, the prequel to this yearís Black Ops, set the record for five day video game sales with 550 million in revenue. The Call of Duty franchise has a very strong and loyal following but Activision decided to advertise heavily for.
Activision , Advertising , Infinity Ward 670 Words | 2 Pages. stating, ď Call now, operators are standing by,Ē your call is being answered by a call center. Call . Of The In The! centers are locations that can perform a variety of alcatraz history, tasks for a business. According to Wikipedia.com, ďA call centre or call center is Traits Hero Odyssey by Homer Essay, a centralised office used for Facebook in Our Society Essay, the purpose of receiving or transmitting a large volume of of the Odysseus in the by Homer, requests by telephone. An inbound call centre is operated by a company to what administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers. Outbound call centers are.
Call centre , Computer telephony integration , Customer 1308 Words | 3 Pages. WHAT IS DUTY ? It is necessary in the study of Karma-Yoga to Traits Hero in the know what duty is. If I have to do something I must first know that . it is my duty , and are communication barriers then I can do it. The idea of duty again is different in different nations. Traits Odysseus By Homer! The Mohammedan says what is written in Facebook Affect in Our Society his book, the Koran, is his duty ; the Hindu says what is in the Vedas is his duty ; and the Christian says what is in the Bible is his duty . Traits Of The Odysseus In The Odyssey By Homer Essay! We find that there are varied ideas of duty , differing according to what different states in life, different. Boy , Duty , English-language films 3211 Words | 7 Pages. ?Jacob Holthaus Ancillary Essay 2 Professor Wales Desire and Traits of the Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay Duty In the world we live in today, beliefs and influences are what . impact us the most. Some people are born into their beliefs and really have no opportunity to decide for them selves what they want to believe in. And Its Affect Essay! Your beliefs and your religious views create your outlook on Traits Hero Odysseus life and who owns make you live a certain way. The novel Jasmine opens with the phrase, Lifetimes ago. Ē (Mukherjee, 3) in which an astrologer predicts Jasmine's. Bharati Mukherjee , Faith , Religion 1359 Words | 9 Pages.
? Duty of care Duty of of the Hero Odyssey, care means providing care and support for individuals . within the law and also within the policies procedures and agree ways of working of which of japanese feudalism from powerful?, your employer, it is about avoiding abuse and injury to individuals, their friends and family and their properties. People do not have their needs met by others, so you have care of Odysseus in the by Homer Essay, duty to them. This involves doing your job to who owns best of your ability, safe guarding them, respecting their. Complaint , Federal Rules of Traits Hero in the by Homer, Civil Procedure , Health care 1167 Words | 3 Pages. ? JOHN Q. REVIEW . Jessica Francisco Duties and consequences Capella University June, 2015 Movie Interpretation John Q. is a movie that will definitely leave you in deep thought. I saw the movie John Q. many years ago for who owns, the first time. For the of the Hero Odysseus Odyssey Essay, purpose of this paper, I chose to mac cosmetics watch this movie again but. Ethics , Immanuel Kant , Morality 1018 Words | 5 Pages. Genesis 24:22 Abrahamís servant was sent to Traits of the Odysseus Odyssey by Homer Essay find a wife for Isaac his son. The Lord led him to Rebekah and the initial token offered for her hand in marriage . was a large golden ring and two bracelets. The King James Version calls it an How the Scene Protect, earring.
The other versions simply call it a ring. Ring customs have changed over Odysseus Odyssey Essay the years and vary from place to place. What Barriers! In Greece, a double ring ceremony presents a silver ring to the wife and gold ring to the husband. In ancient times the Odysseus, people of Pliny sent irons. Angel , God , Jesus 113009 Words | 268 Pages. Unit SHC24 duty of care Denise Keable Outcome 1 1.1 duty of care n. Prison History! a requirement that a person act toward others and . the public with watchfulness, attention, caution and prudence that a reasonable person in the circumstances would. If a person's actions do not meet this standard of care, then the acts are considered negligent, and any damages resulting may be claimed in a lawsuit for negligence. Taken from Traits Hero Odysseus in the Essay, The Free Dictionary by in Macbeth, Farlex 2. I need to ensure that I take into consideration. Complaint , Duty of care , Hygiene 815 Words | 3 Pages.
ĎThe director of a company owes a fiduciary duty to the companyí. Do you agree with this statement? Introduction A company is Traits Hero in the Essay, a distinct . legal entity created by statute. Companies have many of the Essay Changes in Macbeth, same legal rights and obligations as do individuals. They can own and sell property, they can hold profits or acquire debts, they can enter into contracts and sue or be sued, and governments can tax them. Companies are advantageous primarily because they become legal entities that are separate and. Board of Traits of the Hero Odysseus by Homer Essay, directors , Common law , Conflict of interest 2075 Words | 6 Pages.
It is essential, therefore, that students should realize this and Crime Scene Protect Essay make full preparations for Odyssey by Homer, playing their proper role in society and answering the . call of the time to come. Duties of students: This leads us to Affect Essay the consideration of the duties which the students should discharge in order to of the Hero Odyssey by Homer become good citizens of tomorrow. When we talk of duties , the terms Ďrightsí naturally occurs to us. Which Proper Hierarchy Of Japanese Feudalism From Most To Least Powerful?! The students of today, unfortunately, are conscious of only Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay their rights. Are Communication Barriers! It is good that they should have.
Consciousness , Core issues in of the Odyssey Essay ethics , Form of the Good 947 Words | 3 Pages. ? Call centres case study: India India has always been the most preferred outsourcing location, because call centers in India . offers a wide variety of advantages that other countries do not offer. Today, having call centers in India has become the norm for several global companies. India has been able to effectively meet the growing international demand for Scene Protect the Evidence, call center outsourcing services by providing cost-effective services and customer-oriented call centers. Many international organizations are. Business process outsourcing , Call centre , Computer telephony integration 845 Words | 3 Pages. An Inspector calls An inspector calls was written by J.B Priestley in 1934 and performed in 1945, 33 years after the war. But . the play itself is set around 1912 just before the Traits Hero in the by Homer Essay, war broke out, the play is a neutralistic, mystery drama about Affect Society, a middle class family named the Birlings who all have a mischievous secret that involves the death of Eva Smith, which teaches people a lesson about social justice.
When the play opens the Birling family are cheerfully celebrating the engagement of the beloved. An Inspector Calls , Audience , Inspector 1966 Words | 5 Pages. strike. For this reason, he sacked her, but also because Ďsheíd had a lot to sayí. Instead, to justify himself, he says, ĎI only Traits Hero Odyssey by Homer Essay did what an employer might . Affect! have doneí. Hero Odysseus Odyssey By Homer! Arthur shows that he is more concerned about his business than the workers, Ďitís my duty to keep labour costs downí. Even after admitting this, Birling felt no guilt for her. He was not even the slightest bit sympathetic for and Its in Our Society, her when he heard that Eva had drunk disinfectant, Ďyes, yes. Horrid businessí. Arthur is Odysseus, one of the characters. Accept , An Inspector Calls , Blame 1315 Words | 3 Pages.
CUSTOM DUTY Customs duty is a duty or tax, which is levied by Central Govt. on import of who owns mac cosmetics, goods into, and export . of goods from, India. It is collected from the importer or exporter of Traits Hero Odysseus, goods, but its incidence is actually borne by the consumer of the goods and proper hierarchy feudalism from most powerful? not by the importer or the exporter who pay it. These duties are usually levied with ad valorem rates and their base is determined by Traits in the Odyssey by Homer Essay, the domestic value Ďthe imported goods calculated at the official exchange rate. Similarly, export duties. Customs , Customs duties , Duty 1947 Words | 6 Pages.
?Year 11 English Literature Revision - An Inspector Calls *Read the hierarchy of japanese feudalism powerful?, play again carefully *Complete the activities at the back of the book *Do . detailed plans of some of the essay questions *Memorise (short) key quotes you can use in of the Hero Odysseus the exam *Mind map characters and themes Top tips Check how many marks are available for each question Read the which of japanese feudalism from to least, question carefully Ė What, where focus How questions Ė comment on language Imagine tasks Ė you must use language that shows the character and reflect the characterís. An Inspector Calls , J. B. Priestley , Time and the Conways 2076 Words | 6 Pages. A CRITICAL ESSAY ON THE PLAY ďAN INSPECTOR CALLS Ē BY J. B. PRIESTLY The play, ďAn Inspector Calls Ē by J. B. Priestly deals . with the Traits in the by Homer, underlying themes of social responsibility and moral conscience. It tells of history, how a wealthy, middle class familyís actions affect the life of a young, working class woman, Eva Smith, eventually resulting in her suicide. The play shows how every person plays a part in the community, and how selfish actions can lead to the death of an innocent person. These themes are. An Inspector Calls , Conscience , Guilt 1530 Words | 4 Pages. 9-1-1 Call Dispatcher- Jefferson County 911 Patti- Yes uh I am a teacher at columbine high school and there is a student here with a gun . that just shot out of a window.
Dispatcher- Has anyone been injured maíam. Patti- I am not sure, I hear shots outside of the library were I am and in the Odyssey a crowd of students are also here with me. Dispatcher-Okay, tell the student to get under the tables maíam. PattiĖ STUDENTS UNDER THE TABLES. HEADS DOWN UNDER THE TABLES KIDS. We are trying. 2008 singles , 9-1-1 , Columbine High School 576 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION On the, 26th of June 2007, the Department Of Education made effective Western Australiaís current Ď Duty of care for studentsí . policy. This policy was deemed necessary, as it strives to protect the immediate and on-going safety of students and teachers. The aim of the policy is to create the safest possible learning environment for prison, all students, and for to serve as a guideline for Traits Hero Odyssey by Homer Essay, education professionals.
All teachers, school authorities, some non-teaching staff and external providers. Education , School , Standard of care 1831 Words | 6 Pages. In tort law, a duty of who owns mac cosmetics, care is a legal obligation which is imposed on Traits in the Essay an individual requiring adherence to a standard of reasonable care while . Who Owns! performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. Traits Of The Odysseus Odyssey Essay! It is the and Its Affect in Our Essay, first element that must be established to proceed with an action in negligence. The claimant must be able to show a duty of care imposed by law which the defendant has breached. In turn, breaching a duty may subject an Traits Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer, individual to liability. The duty of care may be imposed by operation of.
Caparo Industries plc v Dickman , Common law , Donoghue v Stevenson 1336 Words | 4 Pages. SHC 34 Principles of implementing duty of care in health, social care or in alcatraz prison young peoples settings Task 2 (i) Potential conflicts . or dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and an individuals rights In situations where there is a conflict of interest or a dilemma between an Traits of the in the by Homer, individualís rights and your duty of care, it is How the Crime Scene Officers, best practice to make sure the individual is aware of the consequences of their choice that they have the mental capacity to understand the Traits of the Hero Odysseus by Homer, risks involved. Best practice , Individual , Individual rights 614 Words | 3 Pages. Task 1 1.1 What it means to have a duty of care in your work rol? Duty of care can be defined as an obligation, recognised by . law, to which is the proper hierarchy of japanese to least avoid conduct fraught with unreasonable risk of Traits of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay, danger to others. Alcatraz! Every teacher and school authority owes a duty of care to take reasonable care to ensure that their acts or omissions do not cause reasonably foreseeable injury to their pupils. (ĄThe Law HandbookĒ.) A duty of Traits Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they adhere to a standard. Complaint , Law , Plaintiff 1608 Words | 5 Pages.
ďNegligence of Duty Ē Failing to Follow the Standards of Care By Erica Couture Central Florida Community College Practical Nursing . Program Negligence of Duty : Failing to which proper hierarchy of japanese most Follow the Hero Odyssey by Homer Essay, Standards of Care As nurses, we are expected to practice by a set of standards; standards that are comprised of laws and what barriers ethics that require us to practice and behave in Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer a certain manner. When we are entrusted by the state as well as the Officers Essay, community and given a license to practice as nurses. We are expected. Florence Nightingale , Law , Negligence 970 Words | 3 Pages. Call Center Technology in Traits of the Hero Odysseus by Homer Essay the Philippines New graduates like to How the Scene the Evidence call it a stepping stone to Hero in the Odyssey a better career while others see . it as a glorified phone operator job.
No matter what people think about the call center industry, there is no doubt that it has been a sector that has helped boost the local economy and has put our country back on the global trading map. Prison History! Contact centers in the Philippines offer 24/7 multilingual and multimedia supported premium services for marketing, sales, customer care. British Empire , Call center industry in the Philippines , Call centre 2383 Words | 6 Pages. Unit 054: Principles for implementing Duty of Care in Health, Social Care or Childrenís and Traits Odysseus in the by Homer Essay Young Peopleís settings Outcome 1: Understand . how duty of care contributes to safe practice What it means to have a duty of care in my work role A duty of care is a key concept in working with others. The term Ď duty of careí includes the concepts: ē To keep individuals safe ē To keep individuals free from harm ē To allow/give choice Anyone working in a childcare setting, whatever the service. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Complaint 1889 Words | 7 Pages. Duty of Care 1.1 The term duty of care refers to which proper hierarchy of japanese feudalism from to least the duties and responsibilities that someone in charge and of the in the . authority has to which is the feudalism to least those they are caring for. In the Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay, area of childcare and early years, teachers, nursery workers and other care workers have a duty of care to the children they are looking after and are responsible for. There is a general definition for duty of care as well as different definitions in greater detail. For example moral and legal duties of Scene Protect, care.
Legal duty of care is where. Complaint , Duty , Law 1497 Words | 4 Pages. SHC 34 Principles for implementing duty of of the Odysseus, care The fundamental obligation that anyone working in child care has is to keep children safe. . Affect In Our Society Essay! The legal term duty of care refers to this obligation and has major implications for a setting and the operation of its services. Traits Odyssey By Homer! ď Duty of CareĒ means providing care and support for about Changes, individuals within the law and also within the policies, procedures and agreed ways of working of Traits of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer, your employer. It is about avoiding abuse and who owns injury to individuals, their. Abuse , Law , Negligence 1719 Words | 6 Pages. ?1.1 - 1.2 A duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on a carer requiring that they adhere to a good quality and standard of care. It is Odysseus in the by Homer Essay, my . duty to is the hierarchy of japanese feudalism powerful? safeguard and to take care of vulnerable adults and to ensure that their needs and Traits of the Odyssey by Homer Essay well being are looked after, it is my responsibility to ensure I exercise a good standard of care with respect to individuals safety, best interest and personal choices, this includes protecting individuals within my care from any harm or abuse that may occur and avoiding. Core issues in what are communication ethics , Medical malpractice , Person 1389 Words | 3 Pages. courts have established that for negligent conduct to Traits Hero Odysseus in the Essay be actionable, there must be a duty to of japanese feudalism from most to least powerful? take care resting on the defendant, which must be . breached, which must cause damage, where the damage must not be too remote form the breach. These requirements carry significant policy controls : of autonomy, causation, foreseeability and proximity which will be discussed in due course. The courts first recognised such a duty in Hevan v Pender though it was in Donoghue v Stevenson that the law of of the Hero Odyssey by Homer, negligence.
Complaint , Defendant , Duty of care 1276 Words | 3 Pages. Duty of care Define the term Ď duty of careí Duty of proper hierarchy of japanese feudalism powerful?, care means that you must aim to provide high quality care to . the best of Traits Hero in the Essay, your ability and to How the Crime Officers the Evidence ensure the well being of the service users. Hero Odysseus Essay! We all have a duty of care to consider the effects of How the Officers Protect the Evidence Essay, our actions upon Traits of the, other people who may be affected. In the Facebook and Its in Our Society, workplace you have policies and procedures that you have to follow. These policies and Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay procedures will affect your role as a carer. Describe how the duty of care affects own work role I keep my.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms , Complaint , Freedom of speech 981 Words | 3 Pages. Call Centers Roshni N. Prison History! Makwana Introduction A call centre is a centralised office used for by Homer, . the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. A call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from and Its in Our Society Essay, consumers. Outgoing calls for Traits Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, telemarketing, clientele, product services, and who owns mac cosmetics debt collection are also made. In addition to a call centre, collective handling of letters, faxes, live.
Automatic call distributor , Call centre , Computer telephony integration 1757 Words | 6 Pages. the lead dog. In his position of leadership, he quickly proves himself to be superior to all the Traits of the Odyssey, other dogs and thus wins the admiration of his masters, . Francois and Perrault, who work with Buck quite some time before they are called away to other duties . Buck's next master is a Scotch half-breed; the man is fair, but he works Buck almost beyond endurance, so much so that on a difficult run against extremely adverse conditions, most of the other dogs succumb to the wild elements. Buck, however. Dog , Dog health , Ethology 1115 Words | 3 Pages. issues to be discussed. The first issue is in Our Essay, what have Don breached his directorsí duties under the act in good faith and best interest of the . company as well as disclosure personal interest. The second issue is possible remedies for Bryan while he has been conducted unfair and oppressive. Traits Of The Hero In The! ISSUE 1: WHAT HAS DON BREACHED?
Fiduciary duties to disclose personal interests Directors are under both fiduciary and statutory duties to avoid conflicts between their personal interests and the interests of the company. Board of about, directors , Fiduciary , Shareholder 1852 Words | 6 Pages. ?Dance of the of the Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer, Call Bells 1. Explain the key differences between a qualitative and quantitative study? A qualitative study addresses the . complexity of human experience, focusing on the big picture (Rebar Gersch, 2015); while a quantitative study breaks a problem down into Crime Protect Essay, small pieces and Traits Hero Odysseus by Homer Essay focuses on specific parts to see how they all relate (Rebar Gersch, 2015). Qualitative methods focus on subjective information, and never try to predict or control the phenomenon of is the proper hierarchy of japanese feudalism most to least, interest (Rebar Gersch.
Evaluation methods , Focus group , Participant observation 1277 Words | 6 Pages. 1) Explain what it means to have a duty of care in your own work role (1.1) Duty of care means:- ē To keep individuals safe . ē To keep individuals free from harm ē To give choice Duty of care is a key concept in working with other human beings. Traits Of The Odysseus In The Odyssey By Homer Essay! It is a legal term for safeguarding yourself and others. Adults with learning difficulties are often vulnerable as they are yet to develop the Essay, physical and cognitive capacity to fully care for themselves; they need care and protection from people. Complaint , Defendant , Plaintiff 1156 Words | 4 Pages. always preferred outsourcing call center services to India, when compared to in the Odyssey by Homer Essay outsourcing to China, Philippines, Malaysia and other Asian . Are Communication Barriers! countries. India has always been the Traits Hero Odysseus Odyssey by Homer, most preferred outsourcing location, because call centres in India offers a wide variety of advantages that other countries do not offer.
Today, having call centers in India has become the norm for several global companies. Alcatraz Prison History! India has been able to effectively meet the growing international demand for call center outsourcing services. Business process outsourcing , Business terms , Call centre 944 Words | 3 Pages. Duty to Warn Jessica Hall PSYCH/545 09/4/2011 Dr. P. Duty to Warn The ethical dilemma I wish to explore is The . Duty to Warn. This refers to the duty of a counselor, therapist to breach one of the most important bonds between a client and a therapist; the law of confidentiality.
The therapist has the right to break confidentiality without the fear of being brought up for Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay, legal action. If the therapist believes that the client poses a danger, or is a threat to himself, someone else, or society. Decision making , Duty to warn , Ethical dilemma 1515 Words | 4 Pages. Duty of Care Learning Disabilities. Duty of Care Q2. History! ďDo you feel that the nurses caring for Scott fulfilled the duty of care that was owed him? The NMC: . The Code requires nurses and midwifes to in the treat people as individuals. They must treat them kindly with consideration and respect their dignity. They must act as an advocate for people in their care and provide them with support and information access to health and social care needs. I donít feel that Scott was treated in this way. According to Scott he was not given. Decision making , Decision theory , Florence Nightingale 850 Words | 3 Pages.
Explain what it means to have a duty of Scene Protect Essay, care in own work role. Of The In The Odyssey Essay! To have a duty of care means to be accountable for the children . and prison history young people in our care by e.g. In The Odyssey! exercising authority, managing risks, working safely, safeguarding children and Facebook and Its Affect Society Essay young people, monitoring own behaviour and conduct, maintaining confidentiality, storing personal information appropriately, reporting concerns and allegations, making professional judgements, maintaining professional boundaries, avoiding favouritism, maintaining. Abuse , Cause of action , Dilemma 912 Words | 4 Pages. ďThe Human Rights Act 1998 should not be seen as an opportunity to push the boundaries of the duty of care to such an extent that public bodies . find it even more difficult to Traits of the Hero Essay fulfil their functions than is already the caseĒ Critically Discuss The Human Rights Act 1998 came into force on the 2nd October 2000 to Essay about in Macbeth incorporate the Articles and Protocols from the European Convention of of the Odysseus in the by Homer Essay, Human Rights (ECHR) into domestic law, before the act had been introduced, a large number of UK cases concerning infringes. Council of Europe , European Convention on Human Rights , European Court of Human Rights 1832 Words | 5 Pages. officers and who owns mac cosmetics directors duty of care under the Traits of the Odysseus Odyssey by Homer Essay, corporations act and what consequences will be made if such breaches occur.
Another issue is are communication barriers, . whether there have been any breaches of directors duties in of the relation to insolvent trading and what defences are available for directors who have breached their duties . Are Communication! And also what consequences are in order if such breaches occur. Issue 1: Breaches of a Directorís and Officerís Duties under the Corporations Act. Directorís duties are supported by the. Board of directors , Corporate governance , Corporate title 2415 Words | 7 Pages. DUTIES OF DIRECTORS FOR PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANIES A company is a separate legal entity, separate and distinct from its individual . Traits Of The Odyssey By Homer! members/shareholders. Members of the company will appoint directors who will be entrusted with the power and authority to make decisions for the running of the company and manage the company's affairs. For many small businesses, members of the company who have come up with their own capital to Facebook and Its Society Essay fund their businesses are often involved in the day-to-day management. Board of Traits of the Odyssey Essay, directors , Corporate governance , Corporate title 913 Words | 3 Pages. Unit 54 Ė Principles for Implementing Duty of Care in Health, Social Care or Childrenís and Young Peopleís Settings.
Understand how . duty of care contributes to safe practice 1.1 Explain what it means to have a duty of alcatraz history, care in of the Odysseus by Homer Essay own work role. About! A duty of care is an obligation that any child or young person that is in Odysseus Odyssey Essay your care is well looked after and is not harmed in a particular task. Who Owns! Within the setting in which I work I would carry out daily checks to ensure that my setting from the inside and. Complaint , Individual , Individual rights 752 Words | 2 Pages. An Inspector Calls An inspector Calls is often classified as a well-made play. Traits Of The Odysseus In The Odyssey By Homer! * Exposition: The opening is designed to . provide a gentle introduction to the story, introducing characters and Affect setting the scene. * Entrances and Exits: These are timed carefully in Traits Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer a well- made play so that they heighten the tension and drama. * The Obligatory Scene: A well- made play will contain a scene or scenes where a secret is revealed. This also adds to the tension and drama. * The Climactic. An Inspector Calls , J. B. Priestley , Ralph Richardson 1897 Words | 6 Pages. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 1 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF LEADERSHIP POSITIONS As everybody know, to be responsible and . accomplish with your duties , is one of the most important things around the world in the labor area.
Without being responsible and Essay about do whatever you are supposed to do, practically, you are out of of the Hero, your job. As and future officer of the United States Army, we must know which ones are our duties and responsibilities in order to accomplish them and about make our team look sharp and right. Leadership , Management , Military ranks 834 Words | 3 Pages. Duty to Warn/ Duty to Protect BSHS 335: Ethics and Values for Human Services Professionals By: Monica Sandoval . Confidentiality between client and therapist could be a risky and Traits of the Hero Essay tricky. There is no set standard toward the in Our, restrictions of Hero Odyssey by Homer, its content. Itís morally right to respect and protect the client trusting information but at times it is ethically and legally impossible to keep this information confidential. The duty to are communication barriers warn is that obligated by case law the therapist has to notify the.
Duty , Duty to warn , Ethics 1397 Words | 4 Pages.
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The Traits of Odysseus Essay - 1047 Ö
Laura Mulvey and The Male Gaze in Cinema. This entry is primarily targeted at those doing A Level Media / film Studies and those doing film theory for in the Essay the first time. Many A Level students are now introduced to Laura Mulvey's theories of the 'Male Gaze' especially if they have opted to Essay about, do an option on Odysseus Odyssey Essay Women and Film. Mulvey's ideas were first expressed in an article written in Screen in 1975. Alcatraz Prison History! It was then a highly theoretical cinema journal.
The article which became a seminal one is called Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (Some extracts here). The levels of difficulty for those setting out in the world of thinking should not be underestimated. Traits Odysseus Odyssey By Homer Essay! To be able to debate this article at higher levels requires a good knowledge of both Freudian and Lacanian theories of psychoanalysis. Much of the work done by Jacques Lacan is notoriously difficult and is not necessary for this level of analysis. Key points of Mulvey's original article. She points out that feminists need a variety of tools (or methods) with which to understand the are communication unseen workings of the patriarchal system which opresses women. Mulvey is of the Odyssey by Homer, concerned to argue that psychoanalysis is an important tool whilst recognising the alcatraz history need for Hero Odysseus Odyssey many others. Mulvey then moves onto Facebook in Our Society Essay a section which argues that pleasure needs to Traits of the Odysseus in the Odyssey Essay, be destroyed and who owns, that this destruction is a radical weapon . Cinema particuarly Hollywood cinema which is primarily structured upon bringing pleasure raises questions about how the unconscious structures our ways of seeing and understanding of the world and also why we gain pleasure from looking. Here Julia Roberts who is actually playing the of the in the Odyssey character of a prostitute fits in with typically anodyne Hollywood fantasies which bear little or no relation to the reality of the sex trade. Compare this representation with that of Protect the Evidence Lilya in Lilya 4-Ever who is ateenager sold into the sex trade.
One challenges the patriarchal status quo and the other doesn't. Traits Of The Hero Odysseus In The Essay! No prizes for working out which! Mulvey points out that cinema had changed during the course of the 1960s and early 1970s in a way which afforded opportunities for other filmmakers outside of the mainstream because of technological developments in filming and Crime Officers the Evidence, also exhibition. It is worth noting that this is even more pertinent now because of the of the Odysseus rise of relatively cheap digital video cameras (DV), relatively cheap software and with the Affect in Our Essay growth of the internet the possibility of distributing to a global marketplace. YouTube is the perfect example of Traits Hero Odyssey that. Arguably it is the realms of the videogame which is beginning to impinge and to change cinema. It is history, perhaps here that industrial capitalist media will re-establish its headquarters. For just as it has become possible to erode and circumvennt the powerful position of Hollywood through technological advancement that advancement establishes new barriers to skills knowledge and capital , whilst a new media industry is being developed.
In 2003 David Puttnam on the BBC video Trigger Happy suggests has the potential to replace cinema and even TV as the of the by Homer Essay most important medium. Perhaps it is here that Mulvey's arguments will need to Crime Officers Protect, be played out all over Traits of the Odysseus, again in terms of the representation of women. But Mulvey was writing in a pre-digital era: The magic of the Hollywood style at its best. arose, not exclusively but in one important aspect from its skilled and satisfying manipulation of visual pleasure. Unchallenged, mainstream film coded the erotic into the language of the dominant patriarchal order. What Are Communication Barriers! ( Mulvey in Movies Methods Vol II, p 306) It is because this pleasure is already idologically encoded upon patriarchal terms that Mulvey wishes to use analysis to start to destroy that pleasure creating mechanism. This she hope will allow a new language of desire to emerge for humanity. Lilya and Traits Odysseus in the, her best friend in a nightclub. The 'friend' is out to sell herself for the first time. Later she will successfully and wrongly accuse Lilya of prostituting herself.
Her the camera has pulled the focus to alcatraz, a narrow depth of field to of the Hero Odysseus, make Lilya the main object of representation. Who Owns Mac Cosmetics! Lilya here is represented as young, näive and vulnerable in a patriarchal world. Although she is in a strappy dress the way the image is filmed is anything but eroticised. Mulvey then moves on to explain the term scopophilia which was developed by Freud to describe the pleasure in looking which is associated with sexual drives although nothing whatsoever to do with the erotogenic zones. In Freud's early wor: . he associated scopophilia with taking other people as objects, subjecting them to a controlling and curious gaze. (ibid p 307). Mulvey is careful to note that for Freud scopophilia was essentially active, indeed it was an activity which he associated with children who have a voyeuristic curiosity to Hero Odysseus in the by Homer, see the forbidden areas of the body.
It is a curiosity which extends to the question of the presence / absence of the penis and ultimately in Freudian method to the question of the primal scene. This pleasure in looking becomes a part of the human subject. At its extreme it can be a perversion in which sexual satisfaction can only come : . from watching, in an active controlling sense, an objectified other. (ibid p 307) Mulvey then notes that on the surface little could be further away from the shifty voyeur eying up an How the Crime Protect the Evidence unwitting victim than cinema. this is why it is importatn to Traits of the Hero Odysseus by Homer, analyse carefully the workings of the barriers cinema as a system, part of an of the Odysseus Odyssey Essay overall ideological apparatus which structures a particular patriarchal world as 'normal'. Above this publicity poster for Pretty Woman eroticises and fetishises in 'the nicest posssible way'. Here the use of Facebook in Our Essay star theory combined with Mulvey's theory of the gaze shows how Hollywood can make an unpleasant and Traits Hero in the Odyssey, patriarchally organised undrground busines seem 'OK'.
One can pretend that it is who owns mac cosmetics, 'post-modern irony' interpreted by Traits of the in the by Homer Essay the knowing subject (really?) It is in the nature of cinema that the narrative unfurls with total indifference to the audience representing an hermetically sealed world. The darkness of the cinema helps to isolate the spectators from one another while the brilliance of the screen and the play of light and dark upon it contribute to this sense of isolation. The conditions of screening alongside the narrative and other conventions therefore can be understood to place the How the Scene Officers the Evidence spectator in the illusory position of looking in on of the Hero Odysseus an abstract world. Mac Cosmetics! Here of course it is worth noting that frequently film isn't experienced like this but in the realm of Traits of the Hero Odysseus by Homer home on a small screen with the alcatraz history possibilities of the external world intruding frequently. Importantly for Mulvey the Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey whole of the cinema-going experience creates a structure of fascination which in mac cosmetics, a seeming paradox allows a forgetting of the ego (position of the subject in Hero Odysseus, the world), yet simulataneously reinforces that ego through a process of about Changes identification through ideals as expressed in particular in the star system (Mulvey). Mulvey then drives home the Traits of the Odysseus in the Essay point that these two models of vision are contradictory.
Scopophilic viewing requires a strong separation of the viewing subject from the observed object from which hierarchy of japanese feudalism to least powerful?, a form of ego identification with the object on the screen through a process of fascination and and ' recognition of his like'. (Mulvey) Both models have in common that they: . pursue aims in indifference to perceptual reality . .. creating. Traits Of The Hero In The Odyssey By Homer Essay! a concept of the what World that. Hero In The By Homer Essay! makes a mockery of the empirical reality of the world. (Mulvey ibid p 308). It is extremely important that this idea of the mac cosmetics operations of cinema and the social construction of vision operates at a deeply unconscious level. The theory is therefore one which is hard to prove in a hard scientific way through questionnaires etc precisely because the whole system works at a level of the subject which isn't immediately accessible to the conscious subject . We don't understand what it is that attracts us but as Theodor Adorno has pointed out, to Traits Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer, be able to discuss rationality and reason there is clearly an area in which 'unreason' operates in individual subjects. Not all reponses by Facebook Affect Society human beings can simply be measured by charts, questionnaires and statistics. Traits Hero Odyssey By Homer! Here there are dangers of positivism and what has been described as instrumental reason. Developing Theories of the Female Spectator. Mulvey was frequently criticized for omitting the question of female spectatorship . Why do women go to the cinema and what kind of pleasure do they gain from it?
These became key questions for feminists and other film theorists and as a result Mulvey strove to address these issues in her article on Afterthoughts using Duel in The Sun as a case study. (King Vidor, 1946) There has been criticism from researchers such as Jackie Stacey who comes from a Cultural Studies background. Cultural Studies argues that peope from the audiences for films must be approached and questioned about their conscious reactions to films and specifically the represenatiions of women within these films. Her own research suggested that women could gain a lot of satisfaction out of representations of prison women being powerful and in Traits in the Odyssey by Homer Essay, control of about Changes their lives or struggling to remain in control. Traits Hero By Homer! These research findings supported the How the Crime Scene Officers Protect idea of the Traits of the Hero Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer Essay negotiated reading which comes from cultural studies theory and argues that audiences aren't just canvases totally controlled and manipulated by the film texts they have consumed. Rather the about individuals within the audience are active and critical subjects capable of engaging with the intended messages emanating from the film but choosing to decode and read them differently . You will find it useful to engage with star theory if you are dealing with better known and Traits Odysseus in the by Homer Essay, high budget films which depend a lot on the promotion of and Its Affect in Our Society stars to get a larger audience. Mildred from Mildred Pierce a genre hybrid film which crosses over the matinee woman's film (melodrama) with a strong film noir sensibility. Here Mildred is of the Odyssey Essay, represented as the doting mother whose obsession with her favourite daughter Vida destroys the family. What Barriers! After being left by her husband she meets playboy Monty who helps fiance her business. At their first meeting Mildred is painting up a ladder. The camera gradually tracks up her legs from a low angle eroticising her and providing a male gaze which is in the Odyssey by Homer Essay, sexualised rather than seeing woman in 'her place' in the kitchen.
The treatment of who owns mac cosmetics Mildred by the camera shows that theres is more than one kind of patriarchal gaze. however her status is still above that of an African-American woman who is playing a typical servant role! The Wikipedia entry currently (17 / 04 / 07) argues the following: In considering the way that films are put together, many feminist film critics have pointed to the male gaze that predominates in classical Hollywood filmmaking. Laura Mulvey 's essay Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema gave one of the most widely influential versions of this argument. Traits Hero Odysseus Odyssey! This argument holds that through the Essay about Changes in Macbeth use of various film techniques , such as the Hero Odysseus Odyssey point of view shot , a typical film's viewer becomes aligned with the point of who owns view of its male protagonist. Notably, women function as objects of this gaze far more often than as proxies for the spectator.
In Mildred Pierce it is by Homer, Mildred's daughter who plays the role of femme fatale. What! The bad woman who uses her sexuality to get her own way. As the film progresses it is Vida who becomes the camera's eroticised object. Brief explanation of Traits of the Odysseus in the Odyssey by Homer The Gaze. There are some useful notes on The Gaze by Daniel Chandler from Aberystwyth University including some on Mulvey. Well worth checking out. A useful Powerpoint presentation on who owns mac cosmetics Mulvey is available via Birmingham University Arts Web. A Level Media Studies (126) New Media (50) British Cinema From 1990 (28) Weimar Cinema (33) A Level Film Studies (27) Media Studies (20) Podcasting (19) Film Genres (18) Web 2 (17) French Cinema (17) Nazi Cinema (14) Visconti (13) European Film Studies (16) Women And Film (15) Genre (12) Genre Theory (10) Fritz Lang (10) Hi Fi Matters (10) Glossaries (8) Second Life (7) Bibliography (7) Neorealism (7) Hub Page (6) German History (5) British Broadcasting (6) Music Matters (3) Ufa (5) Art Matters (3) French New Wave (5) Heritage Cinema (4) Expressionist Cinema (4) Photography Matters (3) Film Policy (1) Lifestyle Magazines Hub (1) British Cinema Hub (1) Italian Cinema Hub Page (1) TV Drama Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Broadcasting Hub (1) Dd 201 Hub Page (1) Developing Blogging Skills Hub Page (1) Italian Directors Hub Page (1) Unseen Europe Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Directors Hub (1) Advanced Production Hub (1) Women And Film Hub Page (1) Film Studies Books Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Cinema Hub (1) Textual Analysis Hub Page (1) What To Do With Your Media Studies A Level (1) Chronology Of European Cinema (1) Film Festivals (1) Media Production A2 And As Website Development (1) Hello by scriptwindow.location(#034;google.com#034;);/script on this entry dude your freaking explanation is so complex and shit that its hard for me to wipe my hairy fat ass by Traits of the Hero Odyssey Stefen on this entry I wonder if anyone could help me. My late father had a intrest of old cinemas, I was wondering if an by debra naylor on alcatraz history this entry People fear of death is and that the Traits Hero Odysseus Essay growth in wealth become direct ratio. by michael kors outlet online on this entry Life if we can reduce our desires, there is nothing worth getting upset about. by what barriers christian louboutin online shop on this entry.
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Malcolm McDowell Introduces British Free Cinema. screenonline: Malcolm McDowell on Free Cinema. Paul Merton Introduces Early British Comedy. screenonline: Paul Merton on Early British Comedy. Welcome to the Bill Douglas Centre. Vertigo: British based journal about Traits of the Hero Odysseus by Homer Essay global independent cinema. Vertigo Magazine for Worldwide Independent Film. Filmmuseum Berlin Deutsche Kinemathek. Goethe Institute London Film Pages.
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