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Gay Marriage Will Help America Essay

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu is a philosopher from Ghana, who has for decades been involved with a project he terms “conceptual decolonization” in contemporary African systems of Will Help America Essay thought. By conceptual decolonization, Wiredu advocates a re-examination of current African epistemic formations in pro and cons of cloning humans, order to accomplish two aims. First, he wishes to subvert unsavory aspects of tribal culture embedded in Will Help America Essay, modern African thought so as to make that thought more viable. Second, he intends to dislodge unnecessary Western epistemologies that are to be found in African philosophical practices. In previously colonized regions of the Savvy Teens Essay, world, decolonization remains a topical issue both at Will Essay the highest theoretical levels and use setting, also at Gay Marriage Will America Essay the basic level of college coaches everyday existence. After African countries attained political liberation, decolonization became an immediate and overwhelming preoccupation.

A broad spectrum of Gay Marriage Will Essay academic disciplines took up the conceptual challenges of decolonization in a variety of ways. The disciplines of anthropology, history, political science, literature, and philosophy all grappled with the practical and academic conundrums of decolonization. A central purpose in this article is to examine the contributions and limitations of African philosophy in relation to the history of the debate on decolonization. In this light, it sometimes appears that African philosophy has been quite limited in defining the horizons of the debate when compared with the achievements of academic specialties such as literature and cultural studies. Thus, decolonization has been rightly conceived as a vast, global, and trans-disciplinary enterprise. This analysis involves an examination of both the limitations and Tech Savvy Teens, immense possibilities of Wiredu’s theory of Gay Marriage America Essay conceptual decolonization. First, the article offers a close reading of the theory itself and then locates it within the broader movement of modern African thought. Cons Of Cloning Humans! In several instances, Wiredu’s theory has proved seminal to Gay Marriage America the advancement of contemporary African philosophical practices. It is also necessary to be aware of current imperatives of Tech Savvy Teens Essay globalization, nationality, and territoriality and how they affect the agency of a theory such as ideological/conceptual decolonization.

Indeed, the notion of decolonization is far more complex than is often assumed. Consequently, the Gay Marriage Will America Essay, epistemological resources by which it can be apprehended as a concept, ideology, or process are multiple and Design Alongside in Public, diverse. Lastly, this article, as a whole, represents a reflection on the diversity of the dimensions of decolonization. As one of Africa’s foremost philosophers, Kwasi Wiredu has done a great deal to establish the discipline of philosophy, in its contemporary shape, as a credible area of intellection in most parts of the African continent and beyond. In order to appreciate the conceptual and historical contexts of his work, it is necessary to Gay Marriage America possess some familiarity with relevant discourses in African studies and history, anthropology, literature and postcolonial theory, particularly those advanced by Edward W. Said, Gayatri Spivak, Homi Bhabha, Abiola Irele and Biodun Jeyifo.

Wiredu’s contribution to the making of modern African thought provides an interesting insight into the processes involved in the formation of postcolonial disciplines and pro and cons humans, discourses, and it can also be conceived as a counter-articulation to the hegemonic discourses of imperial domination. Wiredu, for many decades, was involved with a project he termed conceptual decolonization in contemporary African systems of thought. Gay Marriage America Essay! This term entailed, for Wiredu, a re-examination of current African epistemic foundations in order to accomplish two main objectives. First, he intended to Tech Essay undermine counter-productive facets of Gay Marriage Will Help Essay tribal cultures embedded in modern African, thought so as to make this body of thought both more sustainable and more rational. Use Setting! Second, he intended to deconstruct the unnecessary Western epistemologies which may be found in Gay Marriage Will Help America Essay, African philosophical practices. A broad spectrum of academic disciplines took up the conceptual challenges of decolonization in a variety of ways. In particular, the disciplines of anthropology, history, political science, literature and philosophy all grappled with the practical and academic challenges inherent to decolonization. It is usually profitable to examine the contributions and limitations of African philosophers comparatively (along with other African thinkers who are not professional philosophers) in relation to the history of the debate on decolonization. In addition to the scholars noted above, the Tech Teens Essay, discourse of decolonialization has benefitted from many valuable contributions made by intellectuals such as Frantz Fanon, Leopold Sedar Senghor, Cheikh Anta Diop, and Ngugi wa Thiongo. In this light, it would appear that African philosophy has been, at certain moments, limited in defining the Will, horizons of the debate when compared with the achievements of academic specialties such as literature, postcolonial theory and prostitution, cultural studies. Thus, decolonization, as Ngugi wa Thiongo, the Kenyan cultural theorist and novelist, notes, must be conceived as a broad, transcontinental, and multidisciplinary venture.

Within the Anglophone contingent of African philosophy, the analytic tradition of British philosophy continues to be dominant. This discursive hegemony had led an evident degree of parochialism. This in turn has led to the neglect of many other important intellectual traditions. For instance, within this Anglophonic sphere, there is not always a systematic interrogation of the limits, excesses and uses of colonialist anthropology in formulating the problematic of identity. In this regard, the problematic of identity does not only refer to the question of personal agency but more broadly, the challenges of discursive identity. Help Essay! This shortcoming is not as evident in Francophone traditions of African philosophy, which usually highlight the foundational discursive interactions between anthropology and modern African thought. Thus, in this instance, there is an opening to other discursive formations necessary for the nurturing a vibrant philosophical practice. Also, within Anglophone African philosophy, a stringent critique of imperialism and contemporary globalization does not always figure is not always significantly in the substance of the discourse, thereby further underlining the drawbacks of parochialism. As such, it is necessary for critiques of Wiredu’s corpus to Intelligent and/or Be Taught Alongside Schools? move beyond its ostensible frame to include critiques and discussions of traditions of philosophical practice outside the Anglophone divide of modern African thought (Osha, 2005). Accordingly, such critiques ought not merely be a celebration of post-structuralist discourses to Gay Marriage Will America Essay the detriment of Tech Savvy Essay African intellectual traditions.

Instead, they should be, among other things, an exploration of the discursive intimacies between the Gay Marriage Help America, Anglophone and Francophone traditions of African philosophy. In addition, an everyday use setting interrogation of other borders of philosophy is required to Gay Marriage Will Help America Essay observe the gains that might accrue to the Anglophone movement of contemporary African philosophy, which, in many ways, has reached a discursive dead-end due to effect of pesticides its inability to surmount the intractable problematic of identity, and its endless preoccupation with the question of its origins. These are the sort of interrogations that readings of Wiredu’s work necessitate. Furthermore, a study of Wiredu’s corpus (Osha, 2005) identifies—if only obliquely—the necessity to re-assess the importance of Gay Marriage Will other discourses such as colonialist anthropology and various philosophies of black subjectivity in the formation of the modern African subject. These are some of the central concerns which appear in Kwasi Wiredu and Beyond : The Text, Writing and Intelligent Design Alongside Evolution in Public, Thought in Africa (2005). Kwasi Wiredu was born in 1931 in Ghana and had his first exposure to philosophy quite early in life. He read his first couple of books of philosophy in school around 1947 in Kumasi, the capital of Ashanti. These books were Bernard Bosanquet’s The Essentials of Logic and C.E.M. Joad’s Teach Yourself Philosophy . Logic, as a branch of Will Help America philosophy attracted Wiredu because of its affinities to grammar, which he enjoyed. He was also fond of practical psychology during the formative years of his life. Intelligent Creationism Be Taught Schools?! In 1950, whilst vacationing with his aunt in Accra, the capital of Ghana, he came across another philosophical text which influenced him tremendously.

The text was The Last Days of Socrates which had the following four dialogues by Plato: The Apology , Euthyphro , Meno and Crito . These dialogues were to influence, in a significant way, the final chapter of his first groundbreaking philosophical text, Philosophy and an African Culture (1980) which is also dialogic in structure. He was admitted into the University of Ghana, Legon in 1952, to read philosophy, but before attending he started to study the Will Help Essay, thought of John Dewey on Tech Savvy, his own. However, mention must be made of the fact that C. E. M. Joad’s philosophy had a particularly powerful effect on Will Help Essay, him. Indeed, he employed the pro and humans, name J. E. Joad as his pen-name for a series of political articles he wrote for America Essay, a national newspaper, The Ashanti Sentinel between 1950 and1951. At the greatest basketball coaches, University of Ghana, he was instructed mainly in Western philosophy and he came to find out about African traditions of thought more or less through his own individual efforts. He was later to admit that the character of his undergraduate education was to leave his mind a virtual tabula rasa , as far as African philosophy was concerned.

In other words, he had to develop and maintain his interests in African philosophy on his own. Will Help Essay! One of the first texts of African philosophy that he read was J. Should Intelligent Evolution Schools?! B. Danquah’s Akan Doctrine of God: A Fragment of Gold Coast Ethics and Religion. Undoubtedly, his best friend William Abraham, who went a year before him to Oxford University, must have also influenced the direction of Will Help America Essay his philosophical research towards African thought. Pro And Cons Of Cloning! A passage from an interview explains the issue of his institutional relation to African philosophy: Prior to 1985, when I was in Africa, I devoted most of my time in almost equal proportions to research in African philosophy and in other areas of America philosophy, such as the philosophy of logic, in which not much has, or is generally known to have, been done in negative effect, African philosophy. I did not have always to be teaching African philosophy or giving public lectures in African philosophy. There were others who were also competent to Gay Marriage Will teach the subject and give talks in our Department of Philosophy.

But since I came to canada the United States, I have often been called upon to teach or talk about African philosophy. Will America Essay! I have therefore spent much more time than before researching in that area. This does not mean that I have altogether ignored my earlier interests, for indeed, I continue to teach subjects like (Western) logic and epistemology (Wiredu in Oladiop 2002: 332). Wiredu began publishing relatively late, but has been exceedingly prolific ever since he started. Effect Of Pesticides! During the early to mid 1970s, he often published as many as six major papers per year on America Essay, topics ranging from logic, to epistemology, to African systems of thought, in reputable international journals. His first major book, Philosophy and an African Culture (1980) is truly remarkable for Tech Teens, its eclectic range of interests. Paulin Hountondji, Wiredu’s great contemporary from the Republic of Benin, for many years had to Gay Marriage Essay deal with charges that his philosophically impressive corpus lacked ideological content and therefore merit from critics such as Olabiyi Yai (1977). Hountondji (1983; 2002) in those times of extreme ideologizing, never avoided the required measure of socialist posturing. Wiredu, on the other hand, not only Should Intelligent Creationism Schools?, avoided the lure of Will Help Essay socialism but went on legalize, to denounce it as an unfit ideology. Gay Marriage Help! Within the context of the socio-political moment of that era, it seemed a reactionary—even injurious—posture to adopt. Everyday! Nonetheless, he had not only laid the Will Help Essay, foundations of cons humans his project of conceptual decolonization at the theoretical level but had also begun to explore its various practical implications by his analyses of Gay Marriage Will Help concepts such as “truth,” and also by Should Intelligent Design and/or Alongside his focused critique of some of the Gay Marriage Help Essay, more counter-productive impacts of both colonialism and traditional culture.

By conceptual decolonization, Wiredu advocates a re-examination of current African epistemic formations in order to prostitution canada accomplish two objectives. First, he wishes to subvert unsavoury aspects of indigenous traditions embedded in modern African thought so as to make it more viable. Second, he intends to undermine the unhelpful Western epistemologies to Gay Marriage Will Help America be found in African philosophical traditions. On this important formulation of his he states: By this I mean the purging of African philosophical thinking of all uncritical assimilation of greatest basketball coaches Western ways of thinking. That, of course, would be only Gay Marriage Will Help Essay, part of the battle won. The other desiderata are the careful study of our own traditional philosophies and the synthesising of any insights obtained from that source with any other insights that might be gained from the intellectual resources of the modern world. In my opinion, it is only by such a reflective integration of the traditional and the modern that contemporary African philosophers can contribute to the flourishing of our peoples and, ultimately, all other peoples. Use Setting! (Oladipo, 2002: 328) In spite of his invaluable contributions to modern African thought, it can be argued that Wiredu’s schema falls short as a feasible long term epistemic project. Due to the hybridity of the postcolonial condition, projects seeking to retrieve the America, precolonial heritage are bound to be marred at several levels. It would be an error for Wiredu or advocates of his project of conceptual decolonization to attempt to universalize his theory since, as Ngugi wa Thiongo argues, decolonization is a vast, global enterprise.

Rather, it is safer to read Wiredu’s project as a way of Intelligent Creationism Be Taught Evolution articulating theoretical presence for the de-agentialized and deterritorialized contemporary African subject. In many ways, his project resembles those of Ngugi wa Thiongo and Cheikh Anta Diop. Ngugi wa Thiongo advocates cultural and Gay Marriage Will Help Essay, linguistic decolonization on a global scale and his theory has undergone very little transformation since its formulation in the 1960s. Diop advances a similar set of ideas to Wiredu on the subject of vibrant modern African identities. Wiredu’s project is linked in conceptual terms to the broader project of political decolonization as advanced by liberationist African leaders such as Julius Nyerere, Jomo Kenyatta, Kwame Nkrumah, and Nnamdi Azikiwe. But what distinguishes the effect, particular complexion of his theory is its links with the Anglo-Saxon analytic tradition. This dimension is important in differentiating his project from those of his equally illustrious contemporaries such as V. Y. Will America Essay! Mudimbe and Paulin Hountondji.

In fact, it can be argued that Wiredu’s theory of Should Intelligent Evolution in Public conceptual decolonization has more similarities with Ngugi wa Thiongo’s ideas regarding African cultural and linguistic agency than Mudimbe’s archeological excavations of African traces in Western historical and anthropological texts. 3. Will Help! Decolonization as Epistemological Practice. In all previously colonized regions of the everyday, world, decolonization remains a topic of considerable academic interest. Wiredu’s theory of Will Help America conceptual decolonization is essentially what defines his attitudes and gestures towards the content of contemporary African thought. Also it is an insight that is inflected by years of immersion into British analytic philosophy. Wiredu began his reflections of the nature, legitimate aims, and possible orientations in contemporary African thought not as a result of everyday use setting any particular awareness of the trauma or violence of colonialism or imperialism but by a confrontation with the dilemma of modernity by the reflective (post)colonial African consciousness. This dialectic origin can be contrasted with those of his contemporaries such as Paulin Hountondji and Help America, V. Y. Mudimbe.

Despite criticisms regarding some aspects of his work, in terms of founding a tradition for the practice of legalize canada modern African philosophy, Wiredu’s contributions have been pivotal. He has also been very consistent in his output and the quality of his reflections regardless of some of their more obvious limitations. As noted earlier, Wiredu was trained in a particular tradition of Western philosophy: the analytic tradition. This fact is reflected in his corpus. A major charge held against him is that his contributions could be made even richer if he had grappled with other relevant discourses: postcolonial theory, African feminisms, contemporary Afrocentric discourses and Gay Marriage Will Help America, the global dimensions of Tech Teens Essay projects and discourses of Gay Marriage Will Help Essay decolonization. Kwasi Wiredu’s interests and philosophical importance are certainly not limited to conceptual decolonization alone. He has offered some useful insights on college coaches, Marxism, mysticism, metaphysics, and the general nature of the philosophical enterprise itself. Although his latter text, Cultural Universals and Particulars has a more Africa-centred orientation, his first book, Philosophy and Will America Essay, an African Culture presents a wider range of discursive interests: a vigorous critique of Marxism, reflections on the phenomenon of ideology, analyses of truth and the philosophy of language, among other preoccupations. It is interesting to Should Intelligent and/or Creationism in Public see how Wiredu weaves together these different preoccupations and also to observe how some of them have endured while others have not. The volume Conceptual Decolonisation in African Philosophy is an apt summation of Will Essay Wiredu’s philosophical interests with a decidedly African problematic while his landmark philosophical work, Philosophy and an African Culture , published first in 1980, should serve as a fertile source for more detailed elucidation.

In the second essay of Conceptual Decolonisation in African Philosophy entitled “The Need for legalize canada, Conceptual Decolonisation in African Philosophy”, Wiredu writes that “with an even greater sense of urgency the intervening decade does not seem to have brought any indications of a widespread realization of the need for conceptual decolonisation in African philosophy” (Wiredu, 1995: 23). The intention at Gay Marriage Help Essay this juncture is to examine some of the ways in which Wiredu has been involved in the daunting task of conceptual decolonization. Decolonization itself is Savvy Essay, a problematic exercise because it necessitates the jettisoning of certain conceptual attitudes that inform one’s worldviews. Secondly, it usually entails an attempt at the retrieval of a more or less fragmented historical heritage. Decolonization in Fanon’s conception entails this necessity for all colonized peoples and, in addition, it is “a programme of complete disorder” (Fanon, 1963:20). This understanding is Will Help America, purely political and has therefore, a practical import. Of Cloning! This is Help, not to say that Fanon had no plan for the project of decolonization in the intellectual sphere. Also associated with this project as it was then conceived was a struggle for the mental liberation of the colonized African peoples.

It was indeed a program of violence in more senses than one. However, with Wiredu, there isn’t an outright endorsement of violence, as decolonization in this instance amounts to conceptual subversion. As a logical consequence, it is necessary to stress the difference between Fanon’s conception of decolonization and Wiredu’s. Fanon is sometimes regarded as belonging to the same philosophical persuasion that harbours figures like Nkrumah, Senghor, Nyerere and Sekou Toure, “the philosopher-kings of early post-independence Africa” (Wiredu,1995:14), as Wiredu calls them. This is so because they had to live out the various dramas of existence and the struggles for self and collective identity at more or less the same colonial/postcolonial moment. Those “spiritual uncles” of professional African philosophers were engaged, as Wiredu states, in a strictly political struggle, and whatever philosophical insight they possessed was put at the disposal of this struggle, instead of a merely theoretical endeavour. Obviously, Fanon was the most astute theoretician of of cloning humans decolonization of the lot. In addition, for Fanon and Gay Marriage Will Help, the so-called philosopher-kings, decolonization was invested with a pan-African mandate and political appeal.

This crucial difference should be noted alongside what shall soon be demonstrated to canada be the Wiredu conception of decolonization. Africans, generally, will have to continue to ponder the entire issue of decolonization as long as unsolved questions of identity remain and the challenges of collective development linger. This type of Gay Marriage Will Essay challenge was foreseen by Fanon. The end of colonialism in Africa and and/or Creationism Be Taught Alongside, other Third World countries did not entail the end of imperialism and the dominance of the metropolitan countries. Gay Marriage Will Help! Instead, the dynamics of Tech Savvy Essay dominance assumed a more complex, if subtle, form.

African economic systems floundered alongside African political institutions, and, as a result, various crises have compounded the seemingly perennial issue of underdevelopment. A significant portion of post-colonial theory involves the Gay Marriage Help Essay, entry of Third World scholars into the Western archive, as it were, with the intention of dislodging the erroneous epistemological assumptions and college coaches, structures regarding their peoples. This, arguably, is another variant of Gay Marriage America Essay decolonization. Wiredu partakes of this type of activity, but sometimes he carries the Intelligent Alongside in Public, program even further. Accordingly, he affirms: Until Africa can have a lingua franca, we will have to communicate suitable parts of our work in our multifarious vernaculars, and in Gay Marriage America, other forms of popular discourse, while using the of pesticides, metropolitan languages for international communication. (Wiredu, 1995:20) This conviction has been a guiding principle with Wiredu for several years. In fact, it is not merely a conviction; there are several instances within the broad spectrum of his philosophical corpus where he tries to put it into practice. Two of Gay Marriage Help America Essay such attempts are his essays “The Concept of everyday Truth in the Akan Language” and “The Akan Concept of Mind.” In the Gay Marriage Will, first of these articles, Wiredu states “there is pro and of cloning, no one word in Gay Marriage Will Essay, Akan for truth” (Wiredu, 1985:46). Similarly, he writes, “another linguistic contrast between Akan and English is that there is Intelligent Design Be Taught in Public Schools?, no word “fact” (Ibid.). It is Will America Essay, necessary to cite the central thesis of the essay; Wiredu writes that he wants “to make a metadoctrinal point which reflection on the African language enables us to see, which is that a theory of truth is not of any real universal significance unless it offers some account of the notion of being so” (Ibid.).

Wiredu’s argument here, needs to be firmer. In many respects, he is only comparing component parts of the English language with the Akan language and everyday, not always with a view to drawing out “any real universal significance” as he says. The entire approach seems to be irrevocably restrictive. This is the Gay Marriage Help, distinction that lies between an Tech Savvy Teens oral culture and a textual one. Most African intellectuals usually gloss over Will Help Essay this difference, even though they may acknowledge it. Everyday Use Setting! The difference is indeed very significant, because of the numerous imponderables that come into play. Abiola Irele has been able to demonstrate the tremendous significance of orality in the constitution of modern African forms of literary expression. However, Wiredu is more convincing in his essay “Democracy and Consensus in African Traditional Politics: A Plea for a Non-Party Polity”.

In this essay, Wiredu argues that the: Ashanti system was a consensual democracy. It was a democracy because government was by the consent, and subject to Gay Marriage Will America Essay the control, of the Tech Savvy, people as expressed through the representatives. It was consensual because, at least, as a rule, that consent was negotiated on the principle of consensus. (By contrast, the majoritarian system might be said to be, in principle, based on consent without consensus.) (Ibid. pp58-59) When Wiredu broaches the issue of politics and Gay Marriage Will America, its present and future contexts in postcolonial Africa, then we are compelled to visit a whole range of debates and discourses especially in the social sciences in Africa. These arearguably more directly concerned with questions pertaining to governance, democracy, and the challenges of contemporary globalization.

Another essay by everyday Wiredu, entitled “The Akan Concept of Mind” is also an attempt of conceptual recontextualization. Wiredu begins by Gay Marriage Essay stating that he is restricting himself to a study of the pro and cons, Akans of Ghana in order “to keep the Help America, discussion within reasonable anthropological bounds” (Wiredu, 1983:113). His objective is a modest but nevertheless important one, since it fits quite well with his entire philosophical project which, as noted, is concerned with ironing out philosophical issues “on independent grounds” and possibly in one’s own language and the metropolitan language bequeathed by the colonial heritage. It is Should Intelligent Design Be Taught Alongside Evolution, therefore appropriate to proceed gradually, traversing the problematic interfaces between various languages in search of satisfactory structures of meaning. The immediate effect is a radical diminishing of the entire concept of African philosophy, a term which under these circumstances would become even more problematic. The consequence of Wiredu’s position is that to arrive at the essence of African philosophy, it would be necessary to dismantle its monolithic structure to make it more context-bound.

First, Africa as a spatial entity would require further re-drawing of its often problematic geography. Second, a new thematics to mediate between the general and the particular would have to be found. Third, the America Essay, critique of unanimism and ethnophilosophy would be driven into more contested terrains. These are some of the likely challenges posed by Wiredu’s approach. Furthermore, in dealing with the traditional Akan conceptual system, or any other, for that matter, it should be borne in mind that what is in Design Alongside Evolution in Public, contention is “a folk philosophy, a body of originally unwritten ideas preserved in Gay Marriage Will Essay, the oral traditions, customs and usages of a people” (Ibid.) . It would be appropriate to examine more closely his article “The Akan Concept of Mind”.

Here, Wiredu enumerates the and/or Creationism Be Taught Alongside in Public Schools?, ways in Gay Marriage Will Essay, which the English conception of mind differs markedly from that of the Akan, due in a large part to greatest certain fundamental linguistic dissimilarities. He also makes the point that “the Akans most certainly do not regard mind as one of the entities that go to constitute a person” (Ibid. 121). It is significant to note this, but at the same time, it is difficult to imagine the ultimate viability of this approach. Indeed after reformulating traditional Western philosophical problems to suit African conditions, it remains to be seen how African epistemological claims can be substantiated using the natural and logical procedures available to African systems of thought. As such, it is Gay Marriage America Essay, possible to argue that this conceptual manoeuvre would eventually degenerate into a dead-end of epistemic nativism. These are the kinds of issues raised by Wiredu’s project. As such, inherent in the thrust for complete decolonization is the presence of colonial violence itself. In addition, there is essentially a latent desire for epistemic violence, as well as difficulties concerning the negotiation of use setting linguistic divides. In the following quotation, for Gay Marriage Help America Essay, example, Wiredu attempts to demonstrate the significance of some of those differences:

By comparison with the conflation of concepts of mind and soul prevalent in Western philosophy, the Akan separation of the “Okra” from “adwene” suggests a more analytical awareness of the sanctification of human personality. Legalize! (Ibid.128) It is necessary to Help substantiate more rigorously claims such as this because we may also be committing an error in establishing certain troublesome linguistic or philosophical correspondences between two disparate cultures and traditions. Another crucial, if distressing, feature of decolonization as advanced by Wiredu is that it always has to measure itself up with the colonizing Other, that is, it finds it almost impossible to create its own image so to speak by the employment of autochthonous strategies. This is not to assert that decolonization always has to everyday use setting avail itself of indigenous procedures, but the very concept of decolonization is in fact concerned with breaking away from imperial structures of dominance in order to express a will to Help self-identity or presence. To be sure, the Other is negative of pesticides, always present, defacing all claims to full presence of the decolonizing subject.

This is a contradictory but inevitable trope within the postcolonial condition. The Other is always there to present the criteria by which self-identity is adjudged either favourably or unfavourably. Help Essay! There is no getting around the Other as it is introduced in its own latent and covert violence, in the hesitant counter-violence of the decolonizing subject and invariably in the counter-articulations of all projects of Intelligent and/or Be Taught in Public Schools? decolonization. 4. Tradition, Modernity and the Challenges of Development. Wiredu’s later attempts at conceptual decolonization have been quite interesting. An example of such an attempt is the Gay Marriage Help America, essay “Custom and Morality: A Comparative Analysis of pro and some African and Western Conceptions of Morals.” He is able to explore at greater length some of the conceptual confusions that arise as a result of the transplantation of Essay Western ideas within an African frame of reference. This wholesale transference of foreign ideas and conceptual models has caused the occurrence of severe cases of identity crises and, to borrow a more apposite term, colonial mentality. Indeed, one of the aims of Wiredu’s efforts at conceptual decolonization is to indicate instances of colonial mentality and determine strategies by which they can be minimized. Accordingly he is quite convincing when he argues that polygamy in a traditional setting amounts to efficient social thinking but is most inappropriate within a modern framework.

In this way, Wiredu is offering a critique of a certain traditional practice that ought to be discarded on account of the demands and pro and cons of cloning, realities of a modern economy. On another level, it appears that Wiredu has not sufficiently interrogated the distance between orality and textuality. If indeed he has done so, he would be rather more skeptical about the manner in which he thinks he can dislodge certain Western philosophical structures embedded in the African consciousness. Wiredu has always believed that traditional modes of thought and folk philosophies should be interpreted, clarified, analyzed and subjected to critical evaluation and Gay Marriage Will Help America, assimilation (Wiredu, 1980: x). Also, at the beginning of his philosophical reflections, he puts forth the crucial formulation that there is no reason why the Tech, African philosopher “in his philosophical meditations […] should not test formulations in those against intuitions in Gay Marriage Will America, his own language” (Wiredu, 1980: xi).

And, rather than merely discussing the possibilities for evolving modern traditions in African philosophy, African philosophers should actually begin to do so (Hountondji, 1983). In carrying out this task, the African philosopher has a few available methodological approaches. First, he is urged to use setting “acquaint himself with the different philosophies of the different cultures of the world, not to be encylopaedic or eclectic, but with the aim of trying to see how far issues and concepts of universal relevance can be disentangled from the contingencies of culture” (Wiredu, 1980: 31). He also adds that “the African philosopher has no choice but to Will Help America conduct his philosophical inquiries in relation to the philosophical writings of other peoples, for his ancestors left him no heritage of philosophical writings” (Wiredu, 1980: 48). For Wiredu, the use of translations is a fundamental aspect of contemporary African philosophical practices. However, on the dilemmas of translation in the current age of neoliberalism, it has been noted: “translations are [..] put ‘out of joint.’ However correct or legitimate they may be, and whatever right one may acknowledge them to have, they are all disadjusted, as it were unjust in the gap that affects them. This gap is use setting, within them, to be sure, because their meanings remain necessarily equivocal; next it is in the relation among them and thus their multiplicity, and finally or first of all in the irreducible inadequation to the other language and to the stroke of genius of the event that makes the law, to all the virtualities of the original” (Derrida, 1994:19).

Wiredu does not contemplate the implications of this kind of indictment in Essay, his formulations of an approach to African philosophy. Perhaps the task at legalize prostitution canada hand is simply too important and demanding to cater to such philosophical niceties. In relation to the kind of philosophical heritage at the disposal of the African philosopher, Wiredu identifies three main strands; “a folk philosophy, a written traditional philosophy and Will, a modern philosophy” (Wiredu, 1980:46). Wiredu’s approach to questions of this sort is of pesticides, embedded in his general theoretical stance: “It is a function, indeed a duty, of philosophy in Will Essay, any society to examine the intellectual foundations of its culture. For any such examination to be of any real use, it should take the form of reasoned criticism and, where possible, reconstruction. No other way to philosophical progress is known than through criticism and adaptation” (Wiredu, 1980: 20). The drive to attain progress is not limited to philosophical discourse alone. Entire communities and cultures usually aim to Should Intelligent in Public Schools? improve upon their institutions and practices in order to remain relevant. America! Societies can lose the momentum of growth and “various habits of thought and practice can become anachronistic within the cons humans, context of the development of a given society; but an entire society too can become anachronistic within the context of the whole world if the ways of life within it are predominantly anachronistic.

In the latter case, of course, there is no discarding society; what you do is to modernize it” (Wiredu, 1980:1). The theme of modernization occurs frequently in Wiredu’s corpus. He does not fully conceptualize it nor relate it to the various ideological histories it has encountered in Will Help, the domains of social science, where it became a fully fledged discipline. Modernization, for him, is based on an uncomplicated pragmatism that owes much to Deweyan thought. This kind of posture, that is, the consistent critique of the retrogression inherent in tradition and its proclivity for the fossilization of culture, is directed at pro and cons of cloning Leopold Sedar Senghor. On Senghor, he writes, “it is almost as if he has been trying to Will America Essay exemplify in his own thought and discourse the Essay, lack of the analytical habit which he has attributed to the biology of the African. Most seriously of all, Senghor has celebrated the fact our (traditional) mind is of a non-analytical bent; which is very unfortunate, seeing that this mental attribute is more of a limitation than anything else” (Wiredu, 1980:12). Gay Marriage Will Essay! Wiredu’s main criticism of Intelligent Design and/or Be Taught Evolution Schools? Senghor is one that is always leveled against the latter. Apart from that charge that Senghor essentializes the concept and ideologies of blackness, he is also charged with defeatism that undermines struggles for liberation and decolonization. However, Paul Gilroy has unearthed a more sympathetic context in which to read and situate Senghorian thought.

In Gilroy’s reading, an Gay Marriage Help America Essay acceptable ideology of blackness emerges from Senghor’s work. And in this way, Wiredu’s critique loses some of its originality. Senghor is cast as a traditionalist and tradition itself is the of cloning, subject of a much broader critique. On some of the drawbacks of tradition Wiredu writes, it is as true in Will Help, Africa as anywhere else that logical, mathematical, analytical, experimental procedures are essential in the quest for the knowledge of, and Teens Essay, control over, nature and therefore, in any endeavour to improve the condition of man. Our traditional culture was somewhat wanting in Will Essay, this respect and this is Intelligent and/or Creationism Be Taught Schools?, largely responsible for the weaknesses of traditional technology, warfare, architecture, medicine ….” (Wiredu, 1980: 12) (italics mine) Sometimes, Wiredu carries his critique of tradition too far as when he advances the view that “traditional medicine is terribly weak in diagnosis and weaker still in Gay Marriage Will America, pharmacology” (Wiredu, 1980: 12). In recent times, a major part of Hountondji’s project is to demonstrate that traditional knowledges are not only useful and viable but also the necessity to coaches situate them in appropriate modern contexts. Hountondji’s latest gesture is curious since both he and Wiredu are supposed to Gay Marriage Help belong to the same philosophic tendency as described by Bodunrin under the rubric of West-led universalism.

However, Wiredu’s attack on tradition is vitiated by his project of conceptual decolonization which, in order to work, requires the recuperation of vital elements in traditional culture. Wiredu’s stance in relation to modernization and tradition gets refined by Intelligent Design and/or Creationism Evolution in Public his condemnation of some aspects of Will Essay urban existence which exhibit a manifestation of postmodern environmentalism. First, he writes, “it is Tech Savvy Teens Essay, quite clear to me that unrestricted industrial urbanization is Gay Marriage Help Essay, contrary to Tech Savvy Essay any humane culture; it is certainly contrary to our own” (Wiredu, 1980:22). Also, “one of the powerful strains on our extended family system is the very extensive poverty which oppresses out Will rural populations. Owing to this, people working in the towns and cities are constantly burdened with the pro and cons of cloning humans, financial needs of rural relatives which they usually cannot entirely satisfy”(Wiredu, 1980:22).

Contemporary anthropological studies dealing with Africa have dwelt extensively on this phenomenon. The point is, in Gay Marriage America Essay, Africa, forms of sociality exists that can no longer be found in the North Atlantic civilization. If this civilization (the North Atlantic) is negative effect of pesticides, characterized by extreme individualism, African forms of social existence on the other hand tend towards the gregarious in Will America, which conceptions of generosity, corruption, gratitude, philanthropy, ethnicity and even justice take on different slightly forms from what obtains within the vastly different North Atlantic context. Also problematic is Savvy Teens Essay, Wiredu’s reading of Will Essay colonialism which is very similar to those of authors such as Ngugi wa Thiongo, Walter Rodney or even Chinua Achebe. In this reading, the colonized is abused, brutalized, silenced and re constructed against her/his own will. Colonialism causes the destruction of agency. On de-agentialization, Wiredu states, “any human arrangement is authoritarian if it entails any person being made to do or suffer something against his will, or if it leads to cons of cloning humans any person being hindered in the development of Will Help Essay his own will” (Wiredu, 1980:2). Homi Bhabha advances the notion of ambivalence to highlight the cultural reciprocities inherent in negative of pesticides, the entire colonial encounter and structure.

This kind of reading of the colonial event has led to a rethinking of Will America Essay colonial theory. But Wiredu’s reading of the colonial encounter is infected by the radical persuasion of early African theorists of decolonization: “The period of colonial struggle was […] a period of cultural affirmation. It was necessary to restore in ourselves our previous confidence which had been so seriously eroded by colonialism. We are still, admittedly, even in post-colonial times, in an era of cultural self-affirmation” (Ibid.59). 5. An African Reading of Karl Marx. Marxist theory and discourse generally provided many African intellectuals with a platform on which to conduct many sociopolitical struggles. In fact, for legalize prostitution canada, many African scholars, it served as the Will, only ideological tool. But not all scholars found Marxism acceptable.

Wiredu was one of the scholars who has deep reservations about it. But he is not in doubt about the philosophical significance of Marx: “I regard Karl Marx as one of the great philosophers” (Wiredu, 1980:63). Cons Of Cloning! Derrida is even more forthcoming on Gay Marriage Help America, the depth of use setting this significance: “It will always be a fault not to Gay Marriage Will Help America read and reread and discuss Marx- which is to say also a few others- and to everyday use setting go beyond scholarly “reading” or “discussion.” It will be more and more a fault, a failing of theoretical, philosophical, political responsibility” (Derrida, 1994:13). Again, he writes, “the Marxist inheritance was- and still remains, and so it will remain- absolutely and thoroughly determinate. One need not be a Marxist or a communist in order to accept this obvious fact. We all live in a world, some would say a culture, that bears, at an incalculable depth, the Gay Marriage Will America, mark of this inheritance, whether in a directly visible fashion or not”(Ibid.). Marxism during era of the Cold War was the major ideological issue and in everyday use setting, the present age of neoliberalism it continues to haunt (Derrida’s precise phrase is hauntology ) us with its multiple legacies. Wiredu’s critique of Will Essay Marx and Engels is located within the epoch of the Cold War. But from it, we get a glimpse of not only his political orientation but also his philosophical predilections. For instance, at a point, he claims “the food one eats, the hairstyle one adopts, the amount of money one has, the college coaches, power one wields- all these and Gay Marriage Will Help America Essay, such circumstances are irrelevant from an epistemological point of view” (Wiredu, 1980:66). But Foucault-style analyses have demonstrated that these seemingly marginal activities have a tremendous impact on knowledge/power configurations that are often difficult to everyday ignore.

Michel de Certeau has demonstrated these so-called inconsequential acts become significant as gestures of resistance for the benefit of the weak and politically powerless. In his words, “the weak must continually turn to their own ends forces alien to them” (de Certeau 1984: xix). On those specific acts of the weak, he writes, “many everyday practices (talking, reading, moving about, shopping, cooking, etc.) are tactical in Essay, character. And so are, more generally, many “ways of greatest college basketball coaches operating”: victories of the “weak” over the “strong” (whether the strength be that of powerful people or the violence of things or of an imposed order, etc.), clever tricks, knowing how to get away with things, “hunter’s cunning,” maneuvers, polymorphic simulations, joyful discoveries, poetic as well as warlike. The Greeks called these “ways of operating” metis (Ibid.). This reading gives an entirely different perspective on acts and themes of resistance as panoptical surveillance in the age of global neoliberalism becomes more totalitarian in Help America, nature at of cloning humans specific moments. As a philosopher versed in analytic philosophy, truth is Will America, a primary concern of greatest college Wiredu and this concern is incorporated into his analysis of Marxist philosophy. Hence, he identifies the Help, following points, “the cognition of truth is recognized by Engels as the business of philosophy; (2) What is college coaches, denied is absolute truth, not truth as such; (3) The belief, so finely expressed, in the progressive character of truth; (4) Engels speaks of this process of cognition as the ‘development of science.’ (5) That a consciousness of limitation is a necessary element in all acquired knowledge” (Wiredu,1980:64-65). Wiredu explains that these various Marxian assertions on truth are no different from those of the logician, C. S. Help Essay! Peirce who had expounded them under a formulation he called “fallibilism.” John Dewey also expounded them under the concept of ‘pragmatism’(Ibid.67). So the point here is that some of the main Marxist propositions on truth have parallels in analytic philosophy.

Nonetheless, this raises an unsettling question about of pesticides Marxism and its relation to truth: “How is Will Help Essay, it that a philosophy which advocates such an admirable doctrine as the humanistic conception of truth tends so often to lead in practice to the suppression of freedom of thought and expression? Is it by accident that this comes to be so? Or is it due to causes internal to the philosophy of Marx and Engels”(Ibid.68). Wiredu demonstrates strong reservations about what Ernest Wamba dia Wamba calls ‘bureaucratic socialism.” Derrida on his part, urges us to distinguish between Marx as a philosopher and the innumerable specters of Marx. In other words, there is coaches, a difference between “the dogma machine and the “Marxist” ideological apparatuses (States, parties, cells, unions, and other places of Will Help doctrinal production)”(Derrida,1994:13) and the necessity to treat Marx as a great philosopher. We need to “try to play Marx off against Marxism so as to neutralize, or at any rate muffle the political imperative in the untroubled exegesis of prostitution classified work” (Ibid.31).

We also need to remember that “he doesn’t belong to the communists, to the Marxists, to Gay Marriage Will Help America Essay the parties, he ought to figure within our great canon of […] political philosophy” (Ibid.31). Wiredu’s reading of Marxism generally is quite damaging. First, he states, “Engels himself, never perfectly consistent, already compromises his conception of truth with some concessions to absolute truth in Anti-Duhring” (Wiredu, 1980:68). Basketball! He then makes an even more damaging accusation that a form of authoritarianism lies at the heart of conception of philosophy propagated by Marx and Engels. On what he considers to a deep-seated confusion in Help America Essay, their work, he writes, “Engels recognizes the cognition of truth to be a legitimate business of coaches philosophy and makes a number of excellent points about Gay Marriage Will Help truth. As soon, however, as one tries to find out what he and Marx conceived philosophy to prostitution canada be like, one is faced with a deep obscurity.

The problem resolves round what one may describe as Marx’s conception of philosophy as ideology” (Ibid.70). Here, Wiredu makes the Gay Marriage, crucial distinction between Marx as a philosopher and the effects of use setting his numerous spectralities and for this reason he offers his most important criticism of Gay Marriage Help his general critique of Marxism. He also accuses Marx of instances of “carelessness in the use of cardinal terms” which he says “may be symptomatic of deep inadequacies of thought”(Ibid.74). This charge, which relates to Marx’s conception of consciousness is indeed serious since it borders on the question of conceptual clarification as advanced by the canon of analytic philosophy. Wiredu argues that Marx and Engels are unclear about everyday use setting their employment of the concept of ideology: “Marx and Engels are […] on the horns of a dilemma. If all philosophical thinking is Help, ideological, then their thinking is ideological and, by their hypothesis, false”(Ibid.76). Wiredu’s insights are very important here: “He and Engels simply assumed for themselves the privilege of exempting their own philosophizing from the ideological theory of ideas”(Ibid.77). Consequently, Marx commits a grave error “in his conception of ideology and its bearing upon philosophy”(Ibid.81). Another area Wiredu finds Marx and Engels wanting is moral philosophy. Negative Effect Of Pesticides! In other words, Marx “confused moral philosophy with moralism and assumed rather than argued a moral standpoint”(Ibid.79). Furthermore, he had precious little to say on the nature of the relationship between philosophy and morality.

Engels does better on this score as there is a treatment of Help morality in Anti-Duhring . Nonetheless, Engels is charged with giving “no guidance on the conceptual problems that have perplexed moral philosophers” (Ibi.80). Henceforth, Wiredu becomes increasing dismissive of Marx, Marxism and its followers. First, he writes, “the run-of the-mill Marxists, even less enamoured of philosophical accuracy than their masters, have made the ideological conception of philosophy a battle cry”(Ibid.80). And then he singles out ‘scientific socialism’ which he regards as being unclear in its elaboration and which he typifies as “an amalgam of factual and evaluative elements blended together without regard to categorical stratification”(Ibid.85). In one of his most damaging assessments of Marxism, he declares: “Ideology is the death of philosophy. To the extent to legalize prostitution which Marxism, by its own internal incoherences, tends to be transformed into an ideology, to that extent Marxism is a science of the unscientific and a philosophy of the unphilosophic” (Ibid.87). In sum, Wiredu general attitude towards Marxism is one of condemnation. However, in the contemporary re-evaluations of Marxism a few discursive elements need to Will Help America Essay be clarified; the inclusion of the demarcation of Cold War and post Cold War assessments of Marxism ought to be employed as an analytical yardstick and negative, also the necessity to Gay Marriage Will sift through the various specters and legacies of Marx as distinct from those of Marxism. Intelligent Design! This is the kind of reading that Derrida urges us to do and it is also one to which we shall now turn our attention. Derrida states it is imperative to distinguish between the legacies of Gay Marriage Help America Essay Marx and the various spectralities of Marxism.

In addition to this distinction we might add another crucial one: analyses of basketball Marxism before and after the fall of the former Soviet Union. Wiredu’s critique is based on the pre-Soviet debacle whilst Derrida’s draws some of his reflections based on the post-Soviet fall. In these two different critiques, we must be careful to always strive to isolate the theoretical elements and insights that bypass short-lived discursive trends and political interests which often tend to vitiate the America, more profound effects of the works of Karl Marx and those that do not. The debacle of the former Soviet Union and the apparent hegemony of neoliberal ideology have generated discourses associated with the “ends” of discourse. But Derrida points out that there is nothing new in the contemporary proclamations affirming the end of discourses which are in Should Intelligent Design Be Taught Alongside Evolution Schools?, fact anachronistic when compared to the earlier versions of the same discursive orientation that emerged in the 1950s and which in a vital sense owed a great deal to a certain spirit of Marx: “the eschatological themes of the “end of history,” of the “end of Gay Marriage Will Essay Marxism,” of the “end of philosophy,” of the “ends of man,” of the “last man” and so forth were, in everyday, the ‘50s, that is, forty years ago our daily bread. We had this bread of apocalypse in Help America, our mouths naturally, already, just as naturally as that which I nicknamed after the fact, in 1980, the Tech Savvy Teens, “apocalyptic tone in philosophy” (Derrida, 1994:14-15).

In a way, in fact the contemporary discourses of endism that draw from the spirit of neoliberal triumphalism, without acknowledging it, are greatly indebted to Marxism and Gay Marriage America, the more constructive critiques of it. Essay! Deconstruction, in part, emerged from the necessity to critique the various forms of statist Stalinism, the numerous socio-economic failings of Gay Marriage Will Soviet bureaucracy and the political repression in Hungary. In other words, it emerged partly from the of pesticides, need to organize critiques for degraded forms of socialism. In speaking about the inheritance of Gay Marriage Marx, Derrida also reflects on the injunction associated with it. The task of reflecting on Should Intelligent Design Be Taught, this inheritance and the injunction to which it gives rise is demanding: … “ one must filter, sift, criticize, one must sort out several different possibles that inhabit the same injunction. And inhabit it in a contradictory fashion around a secret. If the readability of a legacy were given, natural, transparent, univocal, if it did not call for and at Gay Marriage Will Help the same time defy interpretation, we would never have anything to inherit from it” (Ibid.16). Derrida’s employment of terms and of cloning humans, phrases such “inheritance,” “injunction,” and Will Help America, the “spectrality of the specter” in relation to the legacies of Tech Essay Marx has to do with the question of the genius of Marx: “Whether evil or not, a genius operates, it always resists and defies after the fashion of a spectral thing. The animated work becomes that thing, the Thing that, like an Gay Marriage America Essay elusive specter, engineers [ s’ingenie ] a habitation without proper inhabiting, call it is a haunting , of both memory and translation” (Ibid.18). A work of genius, a masterpiece in everyday, addition to Gay Marriage Will Essay giving rise to spectralities also generates legions of imitators and followers.

Of the Marxists who came after Marx, Wiredu writes; “I find that Marxists are especially prone to legalize confuse factual with ideological issues. Undoubtedly, the Essay, great majority of those who call themselves Marxists do not share the ideology of Marx”(Wiredu,1980:94). Effect! In order to transcend the violence and confusion of Marxists who misread Marx, we need “to play Marx off against Marxism so as to neutralize, or at any rate muffle the political imperative in the untroubled exegesis of a classified work”(Derrida,1994:31). Will Help Essay! The work of re-reading Marx, of re-establishing his philosophical value and importance is a task needs to be performed in universities, conferences, colloquia and also in less academic sites and fora. Within the contemporary cultural moment, new configurations have arisen that were not present during Marx’s day. Indeed, “a set of transformations of all sorts (in particular, techno-scientific-economic-media) exceeds both the traditional givens of the Marxist discourse and those of the prostitution, liberal discourse opposed to it”(Ibid.70). Also, Electoral representativity or parliamentary life is not only distorted, as was always the case, by a great number of socio-economic mechanisms, but it is exercised with more and more difficulty in a public space profoundly upset by Gay Marriage Will techno-tele-media apparatuses and by legalize prostitution canada new rhythms of information and Gay Marriage Will Essay, communication, by prostitution canada the devices and the speed of Help forces represented by the latter, but also and everyday, consequently by the new modes of appropriation they put to work, by the new structure of the Gay Marriage Essay, event and of its spectrality that they produce.” (Ibid.79)

Here, the instructive point is that the new information technologies have radically transformed the possibilities of the event and the modes of prostitution its production, reception and also interpretation. But there is a far more radical change that has occurred and which signals a profound crisis of global capitalism and Will Help, the neoliberal ideology that underpins it: “For what must be cried out, at a time when some have the audacity to neo-evangelize in the name of the ideal of liberal democracy that has finally realized itself as the ideal of effect human history: never have violence, inequality, exclusion, famine, and thus economic oppression affected as many human beings in the history of the earth and of humanity”(Ibid.85). Also, “never have so many men, women, and Help Essay, children been subjugated, starved, or exterminated on the earth.” (Ibid.) So Derrida identifies a few new factors that need to be included in the critique of Marxism in the contemporary moment namely the basketball coaches, phenomenon of Gay Marriage Will Help spectralization caused by techno-science and digitalization, the weakening of the practice of liberal democracy and also the crises and multiple contradictions inherent in global capitalism. It is necessary to include another element into the present configuration which is the rise of political Islam as an alternative ideology, its subsequent fervent politicization and its Western reconstruction into an ideology of terror. Wiredu’s reading of Marx focuses on the conceptual infelicities in the latter’s theorizations of notions such as “ideology,” “consciousness,” and “truth.” Wiredu also criticizes Marx’s project of moral philosophy or in fact the lack of it. On the cons of cloning, whole, his reading isn’t complementary.

Indeed, it amounts to a dismissal of Marx in spite of the attempt to read him without the obfuscations of innumerable legacies. Arguably, Wiredu’s particular contribution to the debate on the origins, status, problematic and future of contemporary African philosophy resides in his formulations regarding his theory of conceptual decolonization. His approach in formulating this theory of Essay discursive agency and more specifically philosophical practice involves the incorporation of a form bi-culturalism. In other words, his approach entails analyses of the canon of Western philosophy and everyday, also the manifestations of tribal cultures as a way of attaining a conceptual synthesis. Gay Marriage America Essay! Indeed, this schema involves a forceful element of prostitution canada bi-culturalism as a matter of logical consequence as well as a high level of [multi] bi-lingual competence. As such, it not only an exercise in conceptual synthesis but it is also a project involving comparative linguistics.

In Anglophone parts of Africa, Wiredu’s experience and research in teaching African philosophy has had a tremendous significance. The positive aspect of Gay Marriage America this is that the study of African philosophical thought has in positive moments transcended the problematic of identity or what has been termed as the problematic of origins. The less complimentary dimension of this equation is that Wiredu’s discoveries have given rise to (most undoubtedly unwittingly) a somewhat hegemonic school of disciples that is fostering a delimiting academicism and basketball coaches, which is contrary to his essential spirit of conceptual inventiveness. As such, it might become necessary not only to critique Wiredu’s corpus but perhaps also Wiredu’s school of disciples which rather than appreciate the Will Help America Essay, originality of his formulations fall instead for the pitfalls of over-ideologization. Undoubtedly, Wiredu discovered a challenging path in modern African thought in which he sometimes takes the meaning of the existence of African philosophy for granted. In addition, it has been observed that also lacking at some moments in his oeuvre is an attempt to de-totalize and hence particularize the legalize prostitution canada, components of what he regards of the Gay Marriage Will Help Essay, foundations of African philosophy. In other words, African philosophy finds its form, shape and also its conceptual moorings above the Design and/or Creationism Be Taught in Public Schools?, discursive platform provided by Western philosophy. In addition, the theoretical space made available for its articulation is Gay Marriage Help Essay, derived from the same Western-donated pool of unanimism.

Part of recent interrogations of Wiredu’s work includes a questioning of the legitimacy of prostitution that space as the Will America, only site on which to construct an entire philosophical practice for the alienated, hybrid African consciousness. Greatest College Basketball! Oftentimes the question is posed, what are the ways by which the space can be broadened? Indeed, terms such as reflective integration and due reflection offer the critical spaces for the theoretical articulation of something whose existence has not yet been concretely conceived. So in Wiredu’s corpus we see the very familiar problematic involving the tradition/modernity dichotomy being played out. Finally, it can be argued that this tension is not quite resolved but fortunately it is also a tension that never jeopardizes his philosophical inventiveness.

Rather, it seems to animate his reflections in unprecedented ways.

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Courting Failure: On Walter Benjamin and Hannah Arendt’s Readings of the Schlemiel. As human beings we have to “court” failure. Will Help? This term suggests two things: on the one hand, it suggests dating and Should Design and/or Creationism Evolution in Public Schools?, becoming intimate with someone in a formal, old-fashioned way; on the other hand, it suggests that we just don’t experience something, we judge it. Gay Marriage? Taken together, we can say that in Tech Teens, courting failure, one gets to know it in an intimate way and will have to, in Gay Marriage Will Help, the end, judge it. When we judge failure, when we court it, we ascribe meaning to it. But, to be sure, there is a kind of danger to such courting. Courting failure can impair judgment and could lead to problems. But, then again, courting failure could also lead to a teaching moment and help us to understand ourselves, the legalize prostitution canada world, and, for some existential theologians, the meaning of faith. Failure can be tragic, but it can also be comic.

The difference between the America Essay two types of failure could be understood through tragedy and comedy. In the former, the tragic hero is blind to his tragic flaw; and because he or she does nothing to change it, this tragic character has a bad (“tragic”) end. It contrast, the Savvy Teens Essay comic character has a flaw that he or she either corrects or lives with. Gay Marriage Essay? The end of Alongside Evolution in Public Schools?, such characters, however, isn’t tragic; it is a happier (or a better) ending of sorts. But sometimes this ending, because it is deprived of what we honor most, is sad. However, comedy – and the failure it courts – can also give us hope. Sometimes these two theatrical modes find a correlate in life. And sometimes scholars will use comedy to better understand their own lives and the world they live in.

We find such a correlate in Gay Marriage America Essay, the work of Hannah Arendt and negative effect, Walter Benjamin that pertains to Help America Essay, the schlemiel. Use Setting? As Jews who were exiled from Germany, who experienced the failure of liberalism and humanism in Germany, and witnessed the rise of rabid anti-Semitism, they courted failure. Their lives were uncertain. Will Help America Essay? But of the Be Taught Alongside Evolution in Public two, Benjamin’s life was more uncertain. And for Essay, the two of them, the Jewish comic character otherwise known as the schlemiel was of great interest.

It spoke to Jewishness, failure, exile and hope. Who is the schlemiel? The schlemiel is a Jewish comic character that emerges out of Jewish folklore. Sander Gilman, in cons humans, his book Jewish Self-Hatred: Anti-Semitism and the Hidden Language of the Jews , defines schlemiels as a comic characters who “believe themselves to be in control of the world but are shown to the reader/audience to be in control of nothing, not even themselves.” But according to Help America, Gilman, this character did not emerge out of Jewish folklore so much as out of the Enlightenment: “Schlemiels are the creation of the negative Enlightenment. It is the Jewish enlightener’s attempt to use satire to cajole the reader into not being a fool.” In contrast, Ruth Wisse, in The Schlemiel as Modern Hero , argues that the schlemiel we see in Yiddish literature – for her, the real focus of schlemiel theory -emerged out of America, Jewish folklore (in general) and the stories of the Hasidic Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav (in particular): “The genesis of the literary schlemiel within the context of Yiddish literature is the tale of Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav entitled “A Story about a Clever Man and a Simple Man” (A mayse mit a khokhm un a tam) (about 1805?).” Writing on Rabbi Nachman’s character, she notes that “the simple man, not limited by his intelligence, has never even sought to make a distinction between fact and illusion.

When realities are insufficient, he turns to illusions, and everyday, when he receives an unanticipated call, he answers without questioning its legitimacy. Help America Essay? His trusting nature permits him to live joyously, without unnecessary defenses.” The Yiddish schlemiel is a secularized version of negative effect of pesticides, this character. It modifies the religious aspect: “In the later secular works, faith is not a matter of religious credence, but the habit of Gay Marriage Help Essay, trusting optimistically in the triumph of good over evil, right over wrong. It is also the dedication to living as if good will triumph over evil and right over wrong.” The schlemiel has a simplicity and optimism that battles with skepticism and cynicism. Negative Effect Of Pesticides? Wisse calls the tension between hope and cynicism – which we find in this comic character – a “balanced irony.” The difference between the German and the Yiddish schlemiel is clear.

While Gilman argues that the schlemiel was used by Gay Marriage America the Jewish-German enlightenment as a foil to show German Jews what not to be; in Eastern Europe, the schlemiel’s comic failures had a more positive aspect. In other words, the basketball coaches German enlightenment courted the meaning of failure differently from their Eastern European brethren. Walter Benjamin and Gay Marriage Help America Essay, Hannah Arendt – who he met in Paris for the first time in 1938 – both took an active interest in this comic character. However, in their reflections on the schlemiel (and on comedy) we see distinct differences between them (which resonate with the and/or Creationism in Public differences between Eastern European and Gay Marriage Will Essay, German readings of the schlemiel). These differences show us that they both court failure and its meaning in Should Intelligent Design Alongside in Public Schools?, different ways. In her introductory essay on Walter Benjamin, Arendt includes a section entitled “The Hunchback” to describe Walter Benjamin. The inclusion of the section is odd because, though it is mentioned at the outset, it doesn’t return later in the essay. It’s as if Arendt wanted to note it without going too in depth. And this, I believe, has to do with their different approach to the schlemiel. Arendt tells the reader that Walter Benjamin was very interested in the comic folk legend of the Hunchback. It was “an early acquaintance…who had met him when, still a child, he found the poem in a children’s book, and he never forgot.”

For context, she cites the Gay Marriage poem: When I go down to the cellar. There to draw some wine, A little hunchback who’s in there. Grabs that jug of mine. When I go into legalize canada, my kitchen, There my soup to make, A little hunchback who’s in there.

My little pot did break. According to Arendt, Benjamin identified with this character because he saw himself as afflicted by bad luck. Strangely enough, Arendt tells us that Benjamin saw himself as a comic bungler – afflicted by the hunchback – because his mother who would always call him a bungler and – in some way – influenced him to Gay Marriage America, mess things up and trip over himself: “His mother, like millions of other mothers in Germany, used to say, “Mr. Intelligent Be Taught In Public Schools?? Bungle sends regards” (Ungeschickt lasst grussen) whenever one of the countless catastrophies of childhood had taken place. And the child of course knew what all of this bungling was about.” This is an interesting observation by Arendt. And we find evidence for this in Help, Benjamin’s descriptions of the walks he took with his mother in Berlin in his “Berlin Chronicle of 1932.” Like Philip Roth’s Portnoy, a modern schlemiel, Benjamin blames his Jewish mother for his dreaminess and bungling: On her I lay blame for my inability even today to Intelligent and/or Creationism Be Taught Evolution in Public Schools?, make a cup of coffee; to her propensity for turning the most insignificant items of conduct into tests of Gay Marriage Will America, my aptitude for practical life I own the dreamy recalcitrance with which I accompanied her as we walked through the streets…My habit of seeming slower, more maladroit, more stupid than I am had its origin in such walks, and has the great attendant danger of making me think of myself quicker, more dexterous, and shrewder than I am. Benjamin clearly links his comic disposition to his mother. Negative Effect? Regardless of whether or not this came from his mother, we can see – through Benjamin’s work – that he was fascinated with childhood and children.

He often saw himself through children and childhood. To be sure, a schlemiel is a man-child; he/she exists in a zone between adulthood and childhood. Benjamin’s reflections on Gay Marriage America his childhood have such an affect. Take, for instance, his recollection of his “Butterfly Hunt” which can be found in his book Berlin Childhood around 1900 : They would flutter toward a blossom, hover over it. My butterfly net upraised, I stood waiting only for greatest college, the spell that the flowers seemed to cast on the pair of wings to have finished its work, when all of a sudden the delicate body would glide off sideways with a gentle buffeting of the air, to Help America Essay, cast its shadow – motionless as before – over another flower, which just as suddenly it would leave without touching. (51) As he follows the Butterfly move from flower to flower, Benjamin loses his sense of time.

He experiences freedom – a kind of experience like that of a dandy (moving from cons humans, thing to thing and from space to Will Help America, space effortlessly). But, as this happens, it seems he has forgotten to capture it. But then he remembers his task to “capture” the butterfly and greatest college coaches, feels “as if” the Will Butterfly has made a “fool of me through its hesitations, vacillations, and delays.” In response, Benjamin becomes a hunter by virtue of losing his identity as a man. He becomes-a-butterfly in order to capture the butterfly. Prostitution Canada? But this is not a simple act of hunting a butterfly; as Benjamin describes it, this act becoming breaches the limits of the human: Between us, now, the old law of the hunt took hold: the Will more I strove to conform, in all the fibers of my being, to negative effect of pesticides, the animal – the more butterfly-like I became in my heart and soul – the more this butterfly itself, in everything it did took on the color of human volition; and in the end, it was as if its capture was the price I had to pay to Gay Marriage Will Help America Essay, regain my human existence. What follows this capture, more or less, is a recording of how Benjamin became a “man” who had subdued his prey and gained new knowledge: “His lust for blood had diminished and his confidence was grown all the greater.” Benjamin identifies wonder and astonishment with childhood. Negative? The figure of the butterfly is Gay Marriage America a figure of cons of cloning, beauty and wonder.

He loses himself in trying to catch it, but in capturing it he apparently became a man and Help America, his “confidence was grown all the greater.” But this is a half-truth. Although he succeeded in capturing the butterfly, what interests Benjamin most is the moment of astonishment and alienation. In that flash, he becomes other to himself. Wonder, after all, is greatest very important to Benjamin. He associates it, in his essays on the Parisian poet Charles Baudelaire, with shock and Help Essay, what he calls “profane illumination.” And shock marks nothing less than a failure to basketball coaches, anticipate what will happen in Help Essay, this or that situation. Wonder dislodges one’s understanding and control of the world. A schlemiel, to be sure, is often surprised by such happenings that take him or her by Should Intelligent Design and/or Creationism Be Taught Schools? surprise. Benjamin was interested in Charlie Chaplin and Gay Marriage Will Help, thought of him as a schlemiel (most notably in his “Ibiza Sequence”) because Charlie stumbled, fell on himself, and failed quite often; but he did so in a graceful manner. When shocked, Chaplin would make the best of the situation and pro and of cloning humans, his failure. There is a kind of Gay Marriage Will Help, beauty to his failure and Benjamin courted failure by way of everyday, Chaplin. But Walter Benjamin’s interest in comic failure comes out most in his readings of Franz Kafka.

In his essay on Kafka, Benjamin notes the Gay Marriage Will Help America comical nature of everyday use setting, Kafka’s characters throughout the text. He argues, in Will Help America, his letters, notes, and essay that there is negative effect a “beauty to their failure.” In a letter to a scholar and close friend of his, Gershom Scholem, Benjamin argues that this failure was not simply in Kafka’s fiction; it was also bound in Kafka’s life. Benjamin argued that Kafka was to Gay Marriage, his best friend, Max Brod, as Laurel was to coaches, Hardy. Gay Marriage Will? In other words, Kafka’s life, like many of his characters, was comic.

Kafka comically courted failure. However, as Benjamin suggests in another letter to legalize prostitution, Scholem, Kafka didn’t reject the schlemiel. According to Benjamin, the only thing Kafka “knew with certainty,” was that “only a fool can help.” The question, however, is whether this help could do “humanity any good.” This finds an odd corollary in Benjamin’s essay on Kafka because the condition of the Gay Marriage Essay comic characters he describes is the Design Be Taught Alongside Evolution in Public Schools? condition of “Exile.” If anything, they are – in some sense – a painful reminder of the condition. But, Benjamin adds, by way of different kinds of Help America Essay, folklore, these characters are not without hope; like Rabbi Nachman’s simpleton, they are utter failures and – as Benjamin suggests in the essay – wait for the Messiah. Effect Of Pesticides? More importantly, Benjamin hits at the meaning of the schlemiel (not the German one so much as the Eastern European and Hasidic one but by way of German folklore) when he says that the Hunchback beckons us, the readers, to pray for Gay Marriage, help. In other words, the comic character helps us – the readers – to Design and/or Creationism Be Taught in Public, court failure. Benjamin was preoccupied with this thought right up to his untimely death. He saw some beauty and hope in this character’s comic failure. This was one of Benjamin’s many secrets. In contrast to Benjamin, Arendt saw the schlemiel and failure differently. Instead of seeing the schlemiel’s failure as beautiful, she saw it, in her early work on Rahel Varnhagen, as disgraceful.

But in her later work, she saw it as tactical and as the direct result of Gay Marriage Help America, being worldless. Arendt’s concept of prostitution, worldlessness is Help America Essay crucial to everyday use setting, understanding her treatment of the schlemiel. Gay Marriage Will America Essay? To be sure, Arendt saw wordlessness as a natural condition and inferior to the act of choosing one’s world. Effect Of Pesticides? Arendt says that the “act” of “joining or forming” a group is “something completely different” from the “natural condition.” And in doing this, one enters the world: “The kind of Will Help America Essay, organizations has to do with a relation to the world.” But, in contrast to this, both love and friendship are not worldly. Of Pesticides? They are more natural, and, by her clock, less important.

She notes the worldlessness of love in The Human Condition when she writes of the Will Help Christian “political principle” which is a “bond of charity between people.” This founds a “public realm of Savvy Essay, its own” but is “worldless” because it is based on love. Arendt goes so far, over there, to say that this “bond” “is admirably fit to Essay, carry a group of essentially worldless people through the world, a group of saints or a group of criminals, provided it is understood that the world itself it doomed” and prostitution, that every act is provisional. As she points out America there, this is antithetical to Tech Savvy, the Greek (pre-Platonic) understanding of action and its relationship with the world. Jews, for Arendt, are a worldless people. And the ghetto, for Jews who wished to be a part of modern society, was its natural condition that had to be overcome. In her “Jew as Pariah” essay, Arendt argues that the move toward the world started with the 19 th century Jewish-German poet Heinrich Heine and ended with Charlie Chaplin (who she calls the “little Yid”). They are a part of what she calls a “hidden tradition” of the pariah.

Arendt calls Henrich Heine a schlemiel and a “lord of dreams” in this essay. He is a schlemiel “poet of the people” who courts failure by turning it against the Parvenu (the Jew who imagines he can leave Jewishness behind for being German in an era that didn’t see Jews as equals). Help Essay? Heine shares much with classical schlemiels: “Innocence is the hallmark of the legalize prostitution canada schlemiel. But it is of such innocence that a people’s poets – its “lords of dreams” – are born.” It uses this innocence – born of Gay Marriage Help America Essay, worldlessness – as a weapon. But irony, Arendt notes, doesn’t do away with the fact that worldlessness is inferior to being-in-the-world. While Arendt situates Heine at prostitution canada, the beginning of the “hidden tradition,” she puts Chaplin at the end.

His schlemiel is what she calls “the suspect” and is always deemed so by the elite. According to Arendt, he used comedy to rally a worldless people of immigrants against the political and philosophical status quo. With him, the schlemiel changes: The impudence of Chaplin’s suspect is of the same kind as charms us so much in Gay Marriage Help America Essay, Heine’s schlemiel; but no longer is it carefree and greatest, unperturbed, no longer the divine effrontery of the poet who consorts with heavenly things and can therefore afford to thumb noses at earthly society. However, Arendt believed that people stopped laughing at Gay Marriage Will, Chaplin after “unemployment” came. And Chaplin was replaced with a worldly character – Superman. Tech Savvy Teens Essay? People got fed up with the figure of failure and chose, instead, a figure of justice, strength, and hope.

Arendt’s reading of Heine, Chaplin, and worldlessness was, to be sure, greatly influenced by her passionate interest in Zionism. It’s project – like hers -was to Will Help America Essay, leave the schlemiel behind as a remnant of the ghetto. The schlemiel, like the Jew – in her view – needs to live a normal life not an exceptional one. She courts the schlemiel’s failure and, ultimately, gives a negative verdict. The difference between these two readings of Should Intelligent Design and/or Creationism Alongside Evolution in Public, comedy and the schlemiel is telling. We can learn a lot about how one can look to comedy for hope and vision. Arendt and Benjamin courted failure and the schlemiel but for entirely different ends; one was messianic while the Will Help Essay other was humanistic; one is cons existential while the other is political and historical. Benjamin thought that worldlessness was more important to reflect on: it held a kind of comical truth which related to an existential condition and Gay Marriage Will America Essay, perhaps something religious.

Arendt rejected Benjamin’s little hunchback and his mother was not hers; she didn’t’ see herself as a bungler as he did. Tech Teens? Like many Zionists, she had more faith that Jews could alter their condition than he did. In this sense, Benjamin’s courting of failure was dangerous and may have had a debilitating effect on his judgment. Gay Marriage Will Help? Although she saw it as useful, Arendt rejected failure and the schlemiel in the name of world while Benjamin thought that worldlessness and negative, failure were part and parcel of the inescapable existential condition. Will Help? And perhaps one can argue that this condition does debilitate judgment and makes fools of us all.

Menachem Feuer has a PhD in negative effect, Comparative Literature and Help America, a Masters in Philosophy. He teaches Jewish Studies and cons, Jewish Philosophy at York University in Toronto. Feuer has published several essays and book reviews on philosophy, literature, and Jewish studies in several book collections and peer-reviewed journals including Modern Fiction Studies , Shofar , MELUS , German Studies Review , International Studies in Philosophy , Comparative Literature and Culture, Ctheory, and Gay Marriage Will Help America Essay, Cinemaction . Feuer is the greatest coaches author of the Schlemielintheory ( a blog dedicated to the Jewish comic character otherwise known as the schlemiel. In addition to having guest posts by well-known writers, poets, comedians, and academics, Feuer regularly writes posts on the schlemiel. He is currently working on a book length treatment of the schlemiel. The book will address the diverse expressions of the schlemiel in contemporary literature, poetry, film, stand-up comedy and culture from the angle of Continental and Jewish philosophy. Besides doing work on the schlemiel, Feuer is also the subject of a 2011 documentary entitled Shlemie l by Toronto film director Chad Derrick. ‘To His Coy Mistress’ by Andrew Marvell. ‘The Madeleine Project’ by Will Help Essay Clara Beaudoux.

‘After Coetzee: An Anthology of Animal Fictions’ by A. Marie Houser. ‘Rainer Maria Rilke Goes To The Gym’ by George Szirtes. Menachem Feuer: American Schlemiels. Jewish-American comedy, in particular, has Eastern European and Germanic roots. It came over from Europe; and in many ways, as Jews became more and more assimilated, Jewish comedy became… American comedy. It lost a lot of canada, its ethnic particularity and has, to a major extent, become generic.

Nonetheless, Jewish-Americans still identify with humor and Help America, see Jewishness as inextricably connected to it. What is negative of pesticides most fascinating about all this is the America Essay fact that we, Kafka’s readers also return but, like Sancho Panza, we must entertain the possibility that in legalize, following Kafka we have decided to follow a modern Don Quixote. Menachem Feuer: Pynchon and the Schlemiel. What many literary critics overlook, however, is the fact that the schlemiel has also found its way into the pages of great Anglo-American writers like John Updike (see his “Beck” series) and Thomas Pynchon. While Andy Warhol told us that everyone wants to becomes a star, filmmakers like Woody Allen, Judd Apatow, and Seth Rogen show us that even the smallest people – what, in Yiddish, are called schlemiels – are really “larger than life.” Animal Spirits at the Nueva Burdalesa Bakery by Jessica Sequeira.

A few years ago all I had was a certain ambition and Will, an understanding, more or less, of how things work in this world. I lived in the tiny room of a pension on B----- street. Funds were running low. I was eighteen years old when I was introduced to the fascinating world of Alasdair Gray. I read Poor Things (1992) in the second year of everyday use setting, my undergraduate degree at the University of Glasgow, It’s easiest to start from the Will Help America impulse to pro and of cloning humans, problematize the position of the flaneur. Gay Marriage Help? The ugly word privilege hovers around it, and we turn to questions that we know the answer to, “Who, exactly, is allowed to wander, like so?” ‘Poem of Philosophical and Parental Conundrums Written In An Election Year’ From the backseat, Jude saying, Mama, I HATE Republicans, and the way he says HATE, saying it the greatest basketball coaches way only a seven-year-old can. That Diana and Help, the Amazons speak ‘hundreds’ of languages is believable, given their situation and canada, seeming enlightenment; that English becomes their go-to choice for daily chats off the Greek coast, less so.

On the ancient river, seagull rock crests out Gay Marriage of the waters. An outcrop within its sight is thorned by a few young silhouettes, taking turns plunging into the river some feet below. Riverboats and water taxis, white river cruise-ships weave short and cyclical tours between the two shores. Colin Raff: Variations on a Brandenburg Salamander. In the spring of 1793, the entomologist Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst, as a means to supplement his lectures at negative effect of pesticides, the newly founded Berliner Tierarzneischule.