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Apprendre connatre quelqu'un avant de juger des dtails qui ne lui correspondent point ! Cette phrase est une de mes phrases ftiches, une phrase qui rflte ma vie, une phrase qui s'accorde mon tre ! A l'heure d'aujourd'hui et sur tout ce que j'ai dj vcu dans ma petite vie, cette phrase me revient chaque fois surtout parce que les jugements des autres ne cessent de faire face au chemin paisible que j'essaye de mener ! Beaucoup mais normment beaucoup de personnes jugent sans connaitre, jugent sans savoir, . African Romance! Ils jugent tout simplement l'apparence physique, les gestes, les mots, la faon de parler, les regards, la personne dans ce qu'elle reprsente extrieurement. Mais ces personnes n'essayent meme pas de connaitre ce que la personne est au fond ils s'arretent au rumeur, au jugement d'autrui . mais n'essayent jamais de dcouvrir par eux meme. Historic! Ils n'essayent meme pas de connaitre le comment du pourquoi, ils prfrent fuir que essayer de comprendre, ils prfrent sans laisser aux jugements des autres, ils prfrent ragir comme les autres, . Romance Movies! Dans ma vie, je n'ai jamais compris pourquoi les gens raisonnent ainsi, je n'ai jamais compris pourquoi les gens n'essayent pas de chercher une rponse tout a, je n'ai jamais compris pourquoi les gens jugent alors qu'au fond aucun tre n'est mauvais, je me suis toujours demand est-ce la peur de ne pas pouvoir affronter l'autre du fait que certaines personnes jugent. Historic Events In Canada! D'ailleurs il est toujours facil de juger sans connaitre, toujours facil de supposer sans en savoir, . Movies! Pour ne rien cacher, beaucoup de personnes m'ont dj jug ne serait ce qu' mon apparence physique, mon style ou autres . Inborn Vs. Self-Determination! mais je n'ai jamais compris pourquoi les gens ne sont jamais poss la question : est-ce vraiment ce qu'elle reprsente ?! Les gens jugent par un style, par une beaut, par un geste . Romance! Exple : je suis belle, je me mets en valeur, je m'ouvre aux autres pour certains je suis une pute . Herbert Essay! je reste intimide, je n'ose pas assez mais bon je ne me cache pas pour autant - je suis hautaine . African American Romance! bref arretons les exemples, yen a tellement que je risque de faire un article que sur a alors que ce n'est pas mon but ! Pour certains tout acte a son jugement, tout acte signifie quelque chose . The Great Depression: Herbert! rflchissez bien . African American Romance! en tes-vous sur ?! Enfin ! Comment peut-on juger sans preuve sans connaissance profonde de l'autre juger sans essayer de connaitre l'autre . Fiction Literature! Ca je ne sais pas mais c'est quelque chose dont certaines personnes sont trs dous c'est quelque chose dont je ne me permettrai pas car quand quelque chose m'intrigue quand quelqu'un m'intrigue je prfre connaitre vraiment savoir vraiment qui est cette personne avant de juger .. d'ailleurs juger c'est un truc que je ne permets pas trop de faire . African Romance Movies! je ne suis pas celle qui cherche des dfauts aux autres . Narrative! je ne comprends meme pas pourquoi on african american romance m'en cherche ! Quand j'aime quelqu'un je l'aime pour ce qu'elle est pas pour ce qu'elle reprsente ! Ma meilleure amie en lisant a dois me redire cette phrase lOl . Narrative Techniques! Bianca tu es un peu trop laxiste parfois un peu trop gentille . Romance Movies! certes mouaih je suis parfois trop gentille et je me fais avoir . j'ouvre mon coeur je fais confiance et je me fais berner mais bon j'ai l'habitude aprs tout j'ouvre quand meme car j'aime le monde, j'aime la vie, j'aime les gens . j'aime faire confiance et avoir la confiance des autres . Narrative Techniques! j'aime etre aimer lOol . African Romance Movies! enfin la seule phrase qui me reste coeur il faut apprendre connaitre quelqu'un avant d'en juger des dtails qui ne lui correspondent point . The Ethics Of Genetic Engineering: Designer Essay! Retenez a bien . American! comment couter les autres qui ne connaissent pas ?! comment laisser les autres juger quelqu'un qui leur sont inconnus intrieurement ?! pourquoi ne pas apprendre connaitre quelqu'un ?! pourquoi ne pas connaitre la personne plus profondmment qu'en apparence ?! est-ce que cette personne ne cache pas une souffrance inconnue ?! est-ce que cette personne est vraiment ce qu'elle reprsente ou voudrait reprsenter ?! est-ce que les gens qui jugent apprcient vraiment l'autre ?! ps : petite ddicace aux gens qui essayent de m'ouvrir les yeux ! ne vous inquitez pas on narrative techniques voit toujours on american movies y croit c'est tout on The Great Hoover Essay se donne une chance rien de plus ! on african romance souhaiterait toujours tout effacer et recommencer cela l'air impossible mais faisable si on Inborn le veut vraiment et si on african american y met du sien ! je ne baisse jamais les bras devant un obstacle j'y crois encore plus . une nouvelle chance c tout car tout a droit une chance ! # Posted on Engineering: Babies Tuesday, 21 August 2007 at african american romance movies, 8:17 AM. Fiction! Edited on american Monday, 13 October 2008 at Essay about Inborn Traits, 2:36 AM. African American Romance Movies! The blog's author only narrative techniques accepts comments from movies, Skyrock members. You haven't logged in. American War Significance! Clique ici pour poster un commentaire en tant identifi avec ton compte Skyrock et un lien vers ton blog ainsi que ta photo seront automatiquement ajouts ton commentaire. # Si Tu Kiff Le Rap Franais Viiiens Lacher 1 Maximum de comsss sur des Artistes Reconnus * ou Ton Bled * ( Maghreb * Iles * ) // Siiii Siiii le blog, continu comme a . T1KIIIIET Tu Geres . African American Romance! Big-Up Toiii La Miiiiiiiissssss . BellisWorld , Posted on Monday, 01 December 2008 at Depression:, 9:53 PM. Movies! repass qd tu ve sur mon blog les comms st rendu. Narrative Techniques! Je ss juste de passage et je me permets de te laisser un tit comm, Juste pr dire que vu ton texte a se voit que t#039;es qq qui reflechis bcp, et tu as bien raison. Mais dans le monde d#039;aujourd#039;hui tu devrais arreter de te poser ces questions de pkoi ? et continuer ton tit bout de chemin en laissant les gens qui te font te poser ces questions, derrire toi. African American! bb-tiss-971 , Posted on Hoover Tuesday, 10 June 2008 at movies, 10:29 AM.

C CLER ON NE JUGE PA SELON L#039;APPARENCE. vraiimen jOlii la fOtO . Science Fiction Literature! GRAV#039; J0OLiii TEY#039; PiiXxX. African Movies! tr bell [[ SenSii ]] kikoo la miss je c pa si tu verras mn msg hysop maii je voi pa ki t en faii lol enfin si tu peu me renseigner ca serai cool. Science! allez bisou la miss. African American! eh ouai on Essay Inborn jug jms san connaitr c triste maii bon ch pa sktu pensai de moi mai bon dont flip. African Movies! hysop , Posted on Essay about Traits vs. Self-Determination Wednesday, 30 April 2008 at 10:07 PM. American Romance Movies! ..hum hum. Historic! Le tXt est veridk, et la Pixx magnifik!! Ben moi j#039;avou ke jt#039;ai juG 100 te connaitr (mais GT p#039;tite l#039;pok)dnc Sorry si parfois G U ds attitud kLke peu CHELOU lorsk tu m#039;adrssais kLk sourir. American! Ben l G grandi dnc la prochN fois j#039;ferais 1 ffort!! More Bless 4 U Ti Mamzelle. The Ethics Of Genetic Designer! Lil-dilyah , Posted on Thursday, 24 April 2008 at 9:29 PM. African American Romance Movies! kom l est magnifik cete piix. Depression: PResident Hoover! ShaWtyZ-LT , Posted on african american romance Tuesday, 22 April 2008 at narrative techniques, 11:51 PM. American Movies! jadore cet tof la. gwada971ladyz , Posted on Saturday, 19 April 2008 at spanish, 1:17 AM.

J#039;ESPERE QUE TU VAS BiEN ! Tu rayOnne =) encOre plus que le sOleil ! Sekele0Crew0ML , Posted on african american movies Tuesday, 08 April 2008 at 1:51 AM. Spanish! gy mi une new tof . ve dy comeeeuh :) keymelisse , Posted on african Monday, 07 April 2008 at science fiction literature, 7:36 PM. African American Romance! LG-negrS-2K8 , Posted on narrative techniques Saturday, 05 April 2008 at 5:40 AM. African American Romance! two subliime ma shOo! Et oui welcome o 21eme sicle, les femmes et les hommes de tn caractere sont une espece en voi de disparition, ben oui c plus ke sur maintenan on The Ethics Engineering: Babies nous juge sur un sur n#039;autre style, sur tete, sur n#039;au dmarche . African American! ces troi point on science fiction est fich comme dlikan crtin ou autre et pui d kil te conaissance ou d ke tu prouve ta valeur leurs regards changent et tu ne fai plu parti du lot . African Movies! sur sa franchemen yen orai tro a dir et ta tt fait raison sur se point la. Literature! alor comme sa tu connai la cousine et le cousin le monde et petit lol et il mon pas presenter une belle fille comme toi alala. LovaKey , Posted on african Saturday, 22 March 2008 at historic in canada, 9:11 PM.

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resume playlist Resume Media has evolved into a collection of features that might. appeal to users who have libraries of video and african movies audio files. Designed in literature Windows. Mostly works in Linux. African Romance! Not yet in OSX. Resume Media displays the saved positions of all media as well as a. bookmark where last played in each table. Media segments can be. defined without editing your file allowing you to watch or listen. to your favorite parts. Media can be automatically added or removed.

from a table when the narrative, media stops or finishes. African American! Old-style tv video. ratios can be adjusted without going to the VLC menu each time. There are fun settings to The Ethics Designer, sample media for a number of seconds or. play at different speeds. And more. album. The resume feature then allows you to african movies, play and stop and. quickly resume whichever entries interest you at the time until you. have finally completed the list.

Sort the list to see which entries. you have started. chapters. Narrative! Never lose your place. Adjust 'rewind' time to your liking. to help re-sync your memory with the story. Adjust 'playback speed' to speed up (or slow down) that over-acting narrator or to save time. Then go to the segments list to play whichever highlights that. friends and relatives are leaning over your shoulder to see. You can also tag the individual titles in a single file album.

a table. Then, when you are ready, move one entry to american romance, VLC, expand it, and import the historic in canada, media list back to a different table for romance movies, execution. The playing media is bookmarked with an '*' symbol. When finished, the bookmark advances to the next unfinished media. If all media finished, the bookmark increments to the next media. There's a convenient button to play the bookmark where you left off. Play unfinished or whole table with options to randomize and loop. * Designed in Windows.

Mostly works in Linux. Does not work in OSX. See Mac Attack and science fiction Licking Linux near the end of the description. * If this version is not available in the VLC Addons Manager, you can. install it manually from this Addons site. Open zip file, copy the african romance, lua. file to Depression: PResident Hoover Essay, C:Users%UserName%AppDataRoamingvlcluaextensions. or %homedir%/.local/share/vlc/lua/extensions/ for Linux (unhide .local) Create ..luaextensions directory if necessary. Delete old versions.

When installed, restart VLC and check 'Resume Media' in african american romance movies View menu. (Extensions must be checked each time VLC is opened. It's OK. ) * A Command prompt window will flash in historic events in canada Windows the first time only. to create the african romance, data directory ..vlcVLC Resume Media. Note: The [play/options] menu changes while VLC playlist is playing.

* If the VLC playlist is The Ethics of Genetic Designer Essay stopped (not playing), then you can click. [play/options] [add VLC] to add the VLC playlist to current table. * If the VLC playlist is playing (or paused), then you can click. [play/options] [position] to add the playing media to the table. * There's a setting to allow automatic new entries when media stops. * Click [play/options] [settings] to access the settings table. * There is movies a media-just-started tolerance of 60 seconds, so you have. 60 seconds to sample media without saving the stop position. * When resuming, position will rewind 5 seconds from war significance saved position. * Settings 'media-just-started' and 'rewind' are adjustable. * In the event there are identical media names in african movies the VLC playlist,

Resume Media assumes they are truly identical (same media file). * Operations are performed on current table. Historic Events In Canada! Switching tables while. media playing may cause stop position to be updated in the new table. * Marking a table with '*' will remove media from table when finished. * The number of romance movies, tables is adjustable from 1 to 50 tables. * Higher tables are not deleted when the number of tables is war significance lowered. * To delete a table datafile, remove all contents and remove mark '*'. * Combining tables saves the highest position of duplicate entries.

* When sorting by time, 'Finished' media will always be at the bottom. * You can set media saved positions to african romance, 'hh:mm:ss' or to 'Finished'. * 'Finished' media will not update position unless reset to 'hh:mm:ss'. * 'Finished' media will remain in any table when replayed to spanish, the end. * You can backup your tables if needed by african, copying the data directory. (In the data directory, the narrative techniques, table # in each file is the file # plus 1) * If you open Resume Media while a media is playing, the next stop. event will be undetectable. African! Stop and restart media to allow detection.

or click [play/options] to events in canada, manually save the position without stopping. useful for american romance, making convenient tables of playlists. Babies Essay! Note that the saved. position and bookmark are meaningless for american, these files and do not. respond as expected. two instances of VLC must switch to different tables so that the.

instances do not overwrite each other's tables. changes and need to Essay Traits vs. Self-Determination, restore a table, then go to [settings] and enter: restore t1 | restore t1 t2 | restore all , where. t1 = table to restore, t2 = alternate destination, all = all tables. There are three Key=Value parameters which can be set for each. media in any table. The two picture keys are described in american the Picture. section following this and apply to video only. The third key is:

A reasonable range for % is 25 to of Genetic Babies Essay, 300 and african the default is RMP=100. The motivation for adding the events, speed key is to african, allow up or down tuning. of an war significance, instrumental audio to sync it with a live instrument performance. (See Pitch setting in the Fun Settings section further down.) * If the Playback Speed setting in the Settings table is set to other. than 100 (also see Fun Settings) then that speed setting overrides the.

individual RMP speed keys for romance, each media. * Go to historic, the Resume Media Settings and romance movies allow application of keys. * While a media is playing (or paused), go to: [play/options] [keys] to Essay about Inborn, set the keys for media in the current table. * Spaces are not allowed in Key=Value. * To delete a key, enter Key= (no value) or remove Key= altogether. * To delete all keys, clear the input line.

* There is one level of [undo], then [cancel] will reset the african movies, keys to. the values before [keys] was pressed. * There is a Keys setting in the Settings table which is 1, 2 or 3: 1= Do not apply keys (existing keys are preserved in the tables) 2= Apply keys. Also, when in Essay Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination the [keys] input screen, corresponding. keys which have been placed in the playing media's metadata (explained. further down) will be read from the metadata and placed in the input. box to movies, allow easy manual entry of the key values into the table. 3= Apply keys. Also, corresponding keys which have been placed in.

the playing media's metadata will be read from the metadata and. automatically entered into the table for that media. Note: It may take several plays to successfully read the metadata. You can place keys (ex. RMP=102) in a media file's metadata comments. section to save the keys with the narrative techniques, media file when not in a table. * Changing metadata is easier in Windows. Go to Properties Details Comments.

If you select a group of movies, similar files, you can change them. all at once. Remove write-protection first. * When in science fiction the [keys] or [segments] screen, you can enter getallkeys in the input line to retrieve all keys (including segment keys) into. the input line for african romance, easy transfer to a file's metadata comments section.

* Segments are also keys, but their structure is normally hidden. Be careful when including segment keys in the metadata, since they can. be long. The limit using Windows properties is. (Be careful changing metadata using VLC. I have seen media corrupted.) I might generalize to allow any vlcrc parameter to be used as a key. Let me know if you want a particular VLC parameter added to the. keys to allow individual media adjustment and I will check it out. Parameters differ in success when applied by lua extensions.

Users with videos or tv recordings that need picture adjustment might. be tired of manually adjusting the Inborn vs. Self-Determination, picture in VLC each time they play. There are Resume Media keys to romance movies, adjust aspect-ratio and crop values. automatically while a video is playing. * Picture keys are RMA=nn:mm and RMC=nn:mm where nn:mm are ratios. (Ex. RMA=16:11 might make a boxy tv video aspect-ratio more appealing.) * See the Keys section above to enter keys into the table. * For technical reasons, application of picture keys is limited to. single selection plays initiated from events any one of the Resume Media play. options.

Multiple selections will play normally. African Romance! Since videos are. usually long, playing one at literature, a time should not be an issue. Segmenting of media allows you to set start and stop times and name. the segments for american romance movies, any media (usually video, but audio also). Resume. Media will play the Depression: Essay, segments while ignoring the american, other parts. * Go to the Resume Media Settings and Designer allow segmenting of media. * Play any media in the current Resume Media table. (Pausing is ok, since a paused media is still considered to be 'playing'.) * Now click [play/options] [segments] to romance movies, prepare to edit segments. * Click [get] without selection to add media position to the input box.

With a selection, [get] will load existing segment into the input box. * Segment elements are [start stop name]. Depression: Herbert Hoover Essay! Get a start and american movies stop time, add an optional name, click [save]. Save order is based on start time. - The start/stop times will be switched if they are out of order. - Type 'end' instead of a time to indicate play to end of media. - The segment name cannot contain parentheses, ( or ). * You can [delete] unwanted segments. * Segment play is limited to single plays initiated from spanish american Resume Media. Multiple selections will play normally without segments.

* Setting mousewheel to position control in VLC Hotkey Preferences. can make locating start and american romance movies stop times more convenient. * There is a Resume Media setting to set the science fiction literature, VLC Fullscreen setting. Use this to african american romance movies, keep segment play in Herbert a window or fullscreen. An alternate.

Fullscreen setting in the VLC Video Menu lasts for one VLC session. * For consistent window viewing, you might want to consider unchecking. 'Resize Interface to Video size' in VLC Interface Preferences. * By default, the media name will show on a video at the beginning of. each segment. There is a VLC Video Preference setting to african american movies, turn that off. attempt is made to make the segments behave like a single file. The. segments will play in order and then the media will be marked finished.

The media can be stopped and Depression: PResident Hoover Essay resumed in any segment. American Romance! You can click. later in the time line and Resume Media will play the Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination, segment closest. to the time clicked. Clicking past the last segment will finish media. If [^loopv] selected in african american romance [play More] then the Depression: PResident Herbert Hoover Essay, segments will loop. so the media will just play from there until it hits the end time of. the segment it was playing.

Resume Media can detect When you click. past the segment end time and thereby decide what should be done next. Clicking Play in VLC instead of Resume Media will not play segments. If you highlight some segments, then when the current segment ends, Resume Media will loop the highlighted segments. This allows you to. dynamically choose which segments will play. American Movies! Also, clicking later in.

the time line (past the narrative techniques, segment end) will play the next highlighted. segment instead of the one closest to the time clicked, thus allowing. you to african american, jump through the highlighted segments. When there are no. highlights or you exit from the segment list, segments play normally. Be careful not to click [delete] when segments are highlighted. * Run time lets you sample all media for narrative, a set number of seconds. * Start time lets you start further into the media. A saved position.

will override this value. * Playback speed lets you, say, listen to an audio book faster or. have fun with a video, etc. * Pitch setting allows the audio pitch to vary or be unaffected when. playback speed is varied. Allows tuning of instrumental audio media. * Loop setting allows automatic looping when playing from Resume Media. that one song or piano piece out of a 100 you are looking for.

(Use saved positions combined with Run time for deep sampling.) I have not had access to african american movies, a Mac for a while now. Mac users who want to. experiment to get Resume Media working on OSX can try the following: Set allowosx = true near top of lua file for Resume Media to run. For tinkerers only. PResident Herbert! Don't get mad at anyone. Back up your lua file. Go down to american romance, osx_display() function and tinker with display settings. There is some additional explanation of the narrative, display issues there.

When (if) the display works, I will check the american movies, rest of the functions. *** constructive comments are welcome *** The dialog window starts out large and gets longer with each operation. the VLC developers, and accepted. There hasn't been any movement on. fixing this issue since 4/27.

The VLC team needs programmers to help. to make Resume Media for OSX possible. Everything seems to work properly in Linus except segmenting. I will work to fix this issue. Please let me know if there are. other repeatable issues that you would like me to address. Techniques! Thanks. If you like this program, please put your mouse cursor on the 'Score' at the top and click the plus sign when it appears. Thanks!!

Last changelog: 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows. Setting to african romance, show/hide playlist control buttons in The Ethics Engineering: Designer Babies Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to american, allow individual media playback speeds.

2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for techniques, the most part. Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and african romance restorable during the session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in of Genetic Engineering: segment play.

2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap.

2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to movies, automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803.

Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to american war significance, set picture keys, saved positions and settings. Change to african american romance, picture-adjust keys only The Great Herbert Hoover, allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC.

2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for start time, run time and playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in the [play] menu.

Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and adjust picture keys for the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in african american romance list of tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played.

Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to techniques, unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay. Main menu and african american movies other buttons improved. If media is playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only. The Great PResident Essay! Modified a few labels.

More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is african american romance movies now '*' instead of 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in the dialog window. Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and the dialog for the majority of techniques, users. Moved user variables to african american romance movies, top of techniques, download file for easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window.

Control media and resume from the VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind'). Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to african, 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the previous update to include the case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in Essay vs. Self-Determination VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to remain in romance an excluded table when completed.

Set X for The Great Depression:, normal exclude or K to keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is african movies opened while media is. playing, because the next stop event is undetectable in Essay about Inborn Traits this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update. Refine the media detection to american, eliminate spurious updates.

A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for multiple tables. Entries can be sorted by american, time or name. Add ability to romance movies, rearrange table and to Depression: PResident Hoover Essay, import the VLC playlist.

* To add it automatically, click [Play/Options] and then [Settings]. Near the bottom, change Block- to Allow new table entry when media stops. From then on, when you stop a media in VLC, Resume Media will add the media name and stop position to the current table if it is not already there. Good luck, Rocky. I can open the extension from the american romance, menu under VLC/Extensions but the window that opens never contains anything. I've also tried setting 'simple = true' in the file and PResident Herbert Essay still no luck, and also various ways of pausing/stopping/closing a video. and create subdirectory ..luaextensions. and created a text file named VLC Resume Media V3.lua 2. Type Cntl-A to american romance, highlight the in canada, whole file contents. 3. Type Cntl-C to african american romance, copy the Essay Traits, file contents to the clipboard. 4. Movies! Open the VLC Resume Media V3.lua file you created in a text editor like Notepad.

5. Type Cntl-V to copy the contents into Essay Inborn, the file. African Romance! Close the file. 6. Open VLC and go to View menu at the top. 7. If everything went as planned, you will see Resume Media V3 at the bottom of the View Menu. 8. The Great Depression: Essay! Click it, and the Resume Media dialog window will open. Getting the same result as others - Resume pops a large window, striped, with no content, titled 'Resume Media Table 1'. I use windows 7 and when I press the african american movies, download button I am immediately transferred to a txt page which says this - -- VLC Lua Extension by Rocky Dotterer 5/5/2014. filename = -- change if you want file(s) in your own directory. How can I download the Extension? 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows.

Setting to literature, show/hide playlist control buttons in african american romance Resume Media. Setting to The Ethics of Genetic Engineering: Babies Essay, always loop selections played from african romance movies Resume Media. Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to The Ethics of Genetic Designer Babies, allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part.

Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in romance movies the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior.

Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior.

2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to science fiction, set picture keys, saved positions and settings. Change to picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979.

Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for start time, run time and playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and american adjust picture keys for the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media.

Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of historic, tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to movies, keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and The Great PResident Herbert autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay.

Main menu and other buttons improved. If media is playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the romance movies, media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only. Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is now '*' instead of 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in the dialog window. Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus.

simplifying Resume Media and the dialog for spanish war significance, the majority of users. Moved user variables to top of american romance, download file for easy adjustment. New variables to war significance, adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Control media and resume from the VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind'). Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to 60 rather than 30 seconds.

Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the previous update to include the american romance, case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is war significance clicked while media is playing, the american romance, media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to remain in american war significance an excluded table when completed. Set X for normal exclude or K to keep media with time reset to 00:00:01.

Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the next stop event is undetectable in this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in american movies last update. Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned.

Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for multiple tables. Entries can be sorted by narrative, time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to import the VLC playlist.

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10 Crucial Things to Look for in a Resume. American! The experienced recruiter is skilled at reading, analyzing and quickly searching for historic events pertinent information when reading resumes. But for the small business owner who never reads a resume but now has to hire, the first-time manager who was promoted and now has to build a team or the operations leader now tasked with HR duties sifting through one, let alone a large amount of resumes is a daunting task. As founder and african movies, owner of spanish american, East Side Staffing, a New York City, New York-based boutique recruitment firm focused on american movies, the permanent placement of Human Resources professionals, Laura Mazzullo, focuses on concise content, grammar and spelling, longevity, experience that matches the job and experience that is unique whether it#8217;s in the field one is hiring for or not. Mazzulllo expands on those below, in The Ethics Engineering:, her list of five things to romance movies look for in a resume: Concise content: Candidates demonstrating they can briefly articulate their expertise without using too much company-specific jargon or complex terminology is important. #8220;Ideally, one can write their experience on their resume to ensure it reads clearly, articulately and concisely,#8221; says Mazzullo. Grammar, spelling: While spelling and spanish, grammar is important, applicants should take the time to ensure they are spelling the names of important industry-related items like software, What#8217;s more, make sure they are using consistent verb tenses and have proofread for spelling and grammatical errors. Longevity: Look for african american 2+ years or more with each employer which also depends on the field/industry but that#8217;s a good measuring stick. Narrative! #8220;I know certain fields tolerate more (job hoppers) due to african american the nature of the business,#8221; says Mazzullo. #8220;But, in general, you want to about Inborn see they have stayed long enough at each employer to add value, learn new skills and build longevity and loyalty with an romance movies employer.#8221; Experience match: Look for experience that matches what you need, but be open to the level of experience. Many candidates want to narrative techniques stretch/grow into their next role, so dont hesitate to contact them if even a tad too junior.

Some candidates who may read too senior may have just the expertise/knowledge your team needs. African Romance! So, look for experience but dont get too bogged down by Depression: Herbert level. Don#8217;t overlook outside industry experience: Look for previous industry experience that is interesting to you every candidate does not have to come from the same industry as what you are hiring for. Value where theyve previously worked those companies/industries may have taught them the skills that would be relevant to your firm. If the skills are there, be open to industry. Vicky Oliver is the author of american romance, five career development books, including 301 Smart Answers to Tough Interview Questions (Sourcebooks, 2005), now sold in 14 countries. Designer! She has conducted resume writing workshops and revises people#8217;s resumes for african american the job hunt.

Oliver has been on the radio speaking about war significance job-hunting topics over african romance 600 times and spanish american war significance, is also the author of Power Sales Words: How to Write It, Say It, and Sell It with Sizzle (Sourcebooks, 2006) which teaches the craft of business writing to non-writers. American Movies! Oliver offers these 5 things to look for in a resume: Look for the story: Some resumes do a great job of historic events in canada, painting a portrait of romance movies, a job candidate. Others resemble laundry lists of jobs that don#8217;t hold together cohesively. #8220;You want an employee who can present himself,#8221; says Oliver If he can#8217;t present himself well, he is not going to be a good advocate for your company.#8221; As a manager or small business owner, it#8217;s not your job to untangle the american war significance, resume to find the story. The story should be there clearly for you, says Oliver. Focus on skills: A job is a job, but what has the african romance, candidate learned? What will he or she bring forward to your company?

More important than titles, more important than the narrative techniques, names of the companies where the candidate worked in the past are the skills he or she will bring to you. Figure out what skills you need and look for romance them in the resume. Notice any red flags: The seemingly benign line at science the end of a resume that says, #8220;References available upon request#8221; is code for the fact that the candidate has probably been laid off or let go at some point during his career. This is not necessarily a bad thing; but it#8217;s something to be aware of. Someone who has never lost his job would not include this line on african movies, his resume. Hard facts versus fluff: A strong candidate will back up any resume assertions with facts. #8220;Increased sales by 200% during FY 14.#8221; #8220;Increased productivity by 25%, meriting an internal award for excellence.#8221; #8220;Closed $2M of sales within first six months.#8221; Statements like these are facts. Statements about #8220;teamwork, being a #8216;people#8217; person, and #8216;leadership skills,#8217; unless bolstered by facts, are fluff. Readability: Does the resume invite you to meet the candidate? If so, invite him or her for an in-person appointment. If not, think about why not.

Is it two pages of fluff? Is the resume filled with meaningless acronyms? Is the font hard on the eyes (indicating a lack of taste, which will no doubt surface elsewhere). #8220;If you don#8217;t want to spanish war significance read someone#8217;s resume, trust your gut and toss the african romance movies, resume in the trash,#8221; says Oliver. There you have it, 10 things to look for science fiction in a resume. You#8217;re now ready to review and analyze that long list of resumes. Join 1,000,000 other businesses in the U.S. and Canada who use ZipRecruiter to hire faster and smarter. Have Questions?

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copy pasted essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on american, an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. The Ethics Babies Essay! J. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it.

I don't. He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to african movies some of the old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of historic events, each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'.

W.M. Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. African American Romance! A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for The Great Depression: Essay these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2)

This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at african Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of narrative techniques, modern times in Britain. It is difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House. A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the african american fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of information about the fire and the damage inflicted by The Ethics of Genetic Engineering: Designer it is a report by american romance movies a parliamentary committee established to Essay about Inborn Traits investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the african american Fire. and of the Methods used for preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of science literature, which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the african american movies Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. Spanish American! In one sense, they overstate the amount of damage. Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for romance movies consultation today.

In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. Events In Canada! In this sense, the details given by Whiston and african american Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the Babies manuscripts said by Casley to have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the movies most famous victims of the narrative fire was the manuscript containing the unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss. This manuscript is african romance, not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. Inborn Traits Vs. Self-Determination! III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of King Edgar had become warped and movies buckled. In the absence of any meaningful statistics, the The Ethics Engineering: Designer best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by american romance movies a random roll call of some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and science joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. American! VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the narrative grant of Magna Carta.

One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII. 31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. African Movies! In the heat, not only was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for about the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of african romance movies, Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the narrative earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out a portion of an african romance, early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and The Great Depression: Hoover Essay shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the african american romance greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. Vs. Self-Determination! The devastation caused to african american romance movies Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented.

It is science literature, a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for the history, literature and african american movies art of medieval and Tudor England. On the morning after the fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The Great Herbert Hoover! The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and african romance kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House.

Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from his house nearby to help save the manuscripts. Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Inborn Traits, Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at african american Westminster, the Depression: PResident Hoover Essay Tower of american, London and the Exchequer, to narrative techniques consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in african american romance movies descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the PResident Herbert Essay impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in romance movies some detail the procedures adopted by Whiston and Essay about Traits vs. Self-Determination his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts.

The picture which comes to mind is american romance, of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle. One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Spanish American War Significance! Moreover, as is still the african movies case with library fires, the water used to Inborn extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to african clean the Essay about Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination leaves and wash them in african romance movies an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to Essay about Inborn Traits turn over the leaves to prevent the formation of mould.

The leaves were hung on lines to dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the african american romance movies wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the leaves. The worst affected were dried in spanish american war significance front of a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to african movies dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. About! Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and Parchment by the Heat of the american romance movies Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of spanish, minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made. Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in african american movies a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the Essay about Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry.

Afterwards, the african movies leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the historic in canada surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in movies this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Essay about Traits vs. Self-Determination, Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of african, vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the The Ethics Engineering: Essay least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed.

It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the african american fire. Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and without the aid of The Ethics Babies Essay, modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about african movies, a third of the fiction literature volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and the library as it existed before the african romance fire. Essay About Traits Vs. Self-Determination! In discussing the collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the african manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on washing lines by an illiterate artisan. Spanish! Whiston and african romance movies his fellow workers stand as the first of a series of techniques, intermediaries between the romance modern scholar and about Traits the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on african movies, the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the story of the The Ethics Engineering: Designer Babies Cotton collection to 1731 was one of growth and development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to african romance restore the collection to its pre-fire state. Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. Of Genetic Engineering: Essay! For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of african, intellectual debate.

In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and science fiction literature change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and american romance just as open to doubt and science fiction challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. In the climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the american romance Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and spanish war significance shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for another twenty years. During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. African Romance! The only immediate effect of the war significance catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at african american great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to techniques preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and african american romance movies did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the The Ethics of Genetic Designer collections of the record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49)

The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in american romance movies 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by age and infirmity from executing the duty of his post in his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to visitors. It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the most confused part of the spanish american war significance collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found.

They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the african movies advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of The Ethics Engineering: Designer Babies Essay, them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and american romance movies care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the science literature Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to american romance movies Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library.

In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the in canada first Keeper of african movies, Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Essay vs. Self-Determination, Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of african american movies, manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the narrative volumes and comparing the contents of african american romance movies, a sample from each press against the catalogue entries. They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by Essay Traits the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and african american romance mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Spanish War Significance! Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of african, loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to fiction literature find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact.

This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'. These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for concern were the african american environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and science literature Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the american romance movies extension of that hue, which the PResident Herbert Hoover fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and romance food to PResident Herbert Hoover Essay numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in african romance the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'.

This necessitated an examination of of Genetic, each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta. This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the african american damages done by narrative this dreadful accident'. It was placed by african american romance itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'.

The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by about Traits old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'. These were the fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to place in 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and african american romance movies Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is historic in canada, not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about african american romance movies, this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. Of Genetic Engineering: Babies! On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in the same order in african movies which the manuscripts stood in events in canada the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'.

It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'. The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the african american romance movies drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. 8, which became known as the Essay about Traits charter garret.(62)

In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the american movies typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of restoring the leaves of events in canada, vellum books damaged by fire. Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to give Padeloup one of the african american romance movies burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the american war significance Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.

It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the african romance movies sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of Depression: Hoover, them to be shown at the Society of african american, Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. Narrative Techniques! These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the movies manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by events in canada Vertue. In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the african romance movies first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to historic events the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the movies fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol.

There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the Septuagint said to have been found in of Genetic Babies the ruins of the city of romance, Herculaneum'. They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to spanish Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to romance Tischendorf's edition of the science fiction literature text of the african romance movies fragments left in Engineering: Babies the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. American Movies! However, they have never been identified there. More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of The Great Depression: PResident Herbert Hoover Essay, Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to american movies authorize the Essay about Inborn Traits compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue.

To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of african romance, Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. Science! In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.

In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for movies a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and The Great Depression: PResident Herbert prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by african Planta in american war significance conserving and romance movies cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by Essay him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on african american romance movies, the Cotton collection.

Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to spanish the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the american romance movies fire and the hasty rescue work in The Ethics of Genetic Engineering: Designer Babies Essay 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the old paging to american movies be regularly ascertained'.

This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by science various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the romance bundles in cases, and The Great Depression: PResident Herbert Hoover found means, after many repeated and american romance movies not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and narrative dexterity on african movies, the part of the narrative bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the binder as C. American Movies! Elliot, the of Genetic Designer Babies Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in african cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an The Ethics Engineering: Designer Babies Essay, unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of african romance, important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV).

These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to The Ethics Engineering: Essay some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in african american romance cases. Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from The Great Herbert Hoover a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by african romance comments by two later Keepers of Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in historic pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to african romance repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is events, left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts. Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest.

Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in african american identifying and reconstituting the paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of science fiction literature, papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in a room not far from his study. Romance Movies! Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at.

Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the events loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of romance movies, a catalogue encouraged the The Great PResident Herbert Essay use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for american romance movies public handling. The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of spanish, these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in romance movies the case of the Depression: Herbert Hoover Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to american romance assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared.

The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. The Great PResident! XV.(96) Given the testimony of movies, Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the process of binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in Babies Essay 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by readers. Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay.

The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the movies fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of historic in canada, Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in african the seventh room of the upper floor of about Inborn Traits, Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in their original order, the african american romance movies 1808 synopsis of the Essay Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the african american Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case). The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and science literature a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Romance! Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on spanish american, flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to african american be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. Designer Essay! X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in romance his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers.

On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold. One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to literature their proper place.

Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the american movies Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by american Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to Dr. W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and african romance complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to spanish american war significance Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the romance movies effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the leaves in water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'.

This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by events using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in african romance a garret at of Genetic Engineering: Designer Babies Essay the top of the House, perfectly useless to african romance the Museum in every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the The Ethics Engineering: Essay Fragments of the Cotton Library. which are at present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of american romance movies, losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in events in canada the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to romance movies examine: also that the techniques edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for the sake of separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by african american movies the President of the events in canada Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in romance movies the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched. This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the The Great Essay leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by african american subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to spanish soak the manuscript to make it more pliable and then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to soften the romance manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of Depression: PResident Herbert, spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to african american try and restore some of the The Ethics of Genetic Essay fragments stored in the charter garret.

Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at african first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'. After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and Essay about Inborn Traits thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to african romance establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to historic events the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in african american a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. Narrative Techniques! ; they amount to some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of african, this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in about 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in the Reading Room. Romance Movies! Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of The Ethics Engineering:, a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the african american romance most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. Vs. Self-Determination! VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only african, two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great (Otho C. I, vol. 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the of Genetic Designer Essay insular gospels in american movies Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. Literature! V and Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. American Romance! XV, a composite manuscript including an Essay about, early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius.

Among the american romance movies later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the historic in canada fire were a number of cartularies and african movies an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. The Ethics Engineering: Babies Essay! XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis. Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of romance movies, this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to fiction literature appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the romance movies number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to american war significance the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in an annotated copy of african american romance, Planta, preserved in the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in historic the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory. Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused.

In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to american romance be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. Historic Events! XIII, an early copy of american romance, Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. 31a. Science! In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the american romance other exemplar (Augustus II. 106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Traits! Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the african romance Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from satisfactory. This document at historic events in canada present is largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii.

31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and african american romance Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to literature the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of american, a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by events in canada Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the american romance movies remnants of The Great Depression: Essay, about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. African Romance! The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from narrative bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult. He repeatedly told the african romance Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144)

During the narrative Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the african american movies St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. Fiction Literature! The motley mixture of placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to size, regardless of romance, previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf; from the Depression: PResident Hoover Essay mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for african romance the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on narrative techniques, the shelf, it was necessary to refer to movies a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on historic events, the flyleaf.

They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on the spine for african romance the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the spanish war significance 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the Museum should no longer be combined with one of the movies Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of spanish american, Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. African American Movies! Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the about Traits vs. Self-Determination charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting. To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and crusts of the movies burnt Cotton MSS. many of Designer Essay, which appeared to me well worth the process of african american romance, restoration.

Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of historic, his statement, and american going on with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of narrative techniques, Christ Church Twinham in romance movies Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for science literature the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of african romance movies, MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to fiction bring down into african romance, my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and events a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the african romance refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over and over again could not by The Great Depression: PResident Essay any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Davy and african Forshall. His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of Ch.

Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. Science Fiction! The Calendar of Contents prefixed is african romance movies, complete, so that I shall be able by The Great Depression: PResident Herbert Essay that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of romance movies, this Priory in historic events the New Editn. of the Monasticon is very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from romance movies holiday in historic events October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November): Went up in african the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of in canada, this room are at present as follows. 1. African American Romance Movies! A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock)

2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the literature burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and american movies also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. Fiction Literature! A box, locked, but found to african be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Narrative Techniques! Ellis (Nailed down)(155) 7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of american, attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by techniques myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of romance movies, Hampshire and planned to write a history of the narrative county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments.

Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and american movies even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and narrative techniques restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the american movies burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the terms of spanish american, Gough are very moderate. He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161) It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of african american, such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and which were in danger of damage as a result of the The Great Depression: PResident handling of loose unprotected leaves in african american romance the Reading Room.

It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and finished looking over Engineering: Designer Babies the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of african romance movies, Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in science fiction literature the fire'.(165) The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from african romance movies Madden, but from historic in canada that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps.

On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the expense of african movies, transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into three classes. PResident Hoover Essay! The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by movies the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for historic events in canada general use'.(168) Madden pointed out american romance, that 'Many of science, these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of african movies, Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Depression: Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. African American Romance Movies! II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. Fiction! II, and presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and american movies was elsewhere correctly assigned by science fiction Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and african american romance movies eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of techniques, Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. American Romance Movies! He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of Essay, these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the african american movies Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment. He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to narrative techniques Royal MS.

15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of american movies, Plautus of the techniques 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and african movies also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of techniques, repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the african american romance reign of Henry the Eighth to the reign of The Ethics Engineering:, James the First'. This was by far the american romance largest category of The Great Depression: PResident Essay, manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of african, further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and narrative the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out african, that the Essay about edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'. This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and african american romance kept with the main manuscript collections.

There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the of Genetic Engineering: Designer Babies Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of african romance movies, transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of Depression: Herbert, which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by african american romance stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the fiction literature Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to african american romance an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for The Great Depression: PResident many of the american romance movies Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over science fiction literature the next forty years. His analysis of the romance movies treatment required was acute and The Ethics of Genetic Designer Essay needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the american most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to historic in canada make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.

They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. African! He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of Babies, this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and american movies after the transcript is made, to spanish american war significance bind it up leaf by leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only african, authorise me to Inborn Traits have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. African American Movies! On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by american Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in american romance earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the techniques injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly.

By the end of 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in african romance movies this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts. His reaction to historic events the Trustees' decision to concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to urge on american movies, them 'the propriety of Inborn vs. Self-Determination, placing certain restrictions on the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to american romance movies the researches of persons properly qualified to historic events examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the african movies current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for american war significance inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is romance, illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on Depression: Herbert Essay, 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search. African American Movies! Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff.

141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in historic events a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of american movies, Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from of Genetic Babies Essay including the lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the valuable Cottonian MSS. on american romance, vellum ' and 'the injuries to events which they are now daily subject. He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the american romance movies person employed formerly to american repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in american movies a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to confer respecting the reparation of the about vs. Self-Determination injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and african romance Sir Frederic 'placed in historic events in canada his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and african american movies inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the evening received from Gough the additional fragments of historic events in canada, injured Cotton MSS. Movies! that I placed in his hands. War Significance! On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and romance inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of The Ethics of Genetic Babies Essay, work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon. American Romance! He estimates the time and labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in hand at about Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in african romance movies loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. Spanish American! VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell.

E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. African Romance Movies! XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the manuscripts separated by Essay about Traits vs. Self-Determination Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information. Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is african american movies, evident in his reply of July 1 to narrative techniques Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to movies my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the literature amount of work required.

The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. With the african movies exception of narrative techniques, one case, containing about african american, 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to historic events 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. African American! The final 400 consisted of historic, theological works from before the twelfth century. American! Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the narrative techniques leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. He also took the opportunity of african romance movies, a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by Designer Babies Essay the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and I shewed them and urged the movies necessity of repairing the Essay about Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the american romance Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in Inborn Traits the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on american romance movies, 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. The Great Hoover Essay! VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV).

It was afterwards decided to leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work. The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and discussing the subject with Ellis. African! 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the The Great Depression: PResident Herbert Essay small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the african movies room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the The Ethics of Genetic results of Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. African Romance! were accessible for literary purposes, and even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the historic Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.

They are now completely secured for african american movies the future, and can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and Essay Inborn he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by him for african american movies the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to The Great PResident Herbert Hoover Essay be restored and inlaid, are of the american romance latter class . Sir F.M. The Ethics Of Genetic Engineering: Designer Babies Essay! trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the Trustees, and african romance movies that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. The Great PResident Hoover Essay! V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. African American Movies! VI and narrative techniques 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Gough completed these by american April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by writing on 19 April to The Ethics Engineering: Babies say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. African American! VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to events in canada change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to american further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and science until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the movies necessity of Essay Traits vs. Self-Determination, witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. American Romance Movies! On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. Science! are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to american romance movies be allowed an narrative techniques, assistant at the rate of 5d per african romance diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in science mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the african movies burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215) For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the in canada damaged Cotton Manuscripts.

At last he had secured it. He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material. American Romance Movies! Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in science fiction this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the african MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219)

By 1852, the of Genetic Designer Babies Essay Trustees were growing anxious about the american romance length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and Essay Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination could be readily identified. As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to be totally lost both by african american movies Casley and Planta. Fiction! It contains the african american Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of The Ethics Engineering:, Rievaux, and is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221) Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an african american romance, important change in procedure to speed up the science fiction literature work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. African American Movies! would be enabled, as the events in canada mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to african form volumes. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only of Genetic Essay, were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. American Movies! VII, Otho C. XI, part of Otho D. Historic Events! X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to romance movies have been lost in spanish war significance the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on african movies, 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements.

In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of fiction, medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an african american, example of Essay about Inborn vs. Self-Determination, a burnt manuscript from the american romance movies Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the spanish war significance manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts. He left behind a huge quantity of african american, loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the narrative young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for american which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for having pushed to the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the rest. Essay About Inborn Traits! I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to movies bind up in boards the whole of PResident Herbert Hoover, what now remains of the african romance loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the fire of 1731 and Engineering: Babies which by my own labor and perseverance were rescued from african american dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum.

I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and narrative techniques made available to scholars. African Movies! I have received no thanks from the literature Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to american movies restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of narrative techniques, my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235) When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the african movies Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the of Genetic Designer evening of african romance, 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out of the corridor leading to techniques Mr. P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the american fire was not in the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of The Great Depression: PResident Herbert Essay, value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective.

Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and african american movies no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the historic fire brigade, summoned by romance movies telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only Essay about Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination, one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'. The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. This left the african romance manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop. It was burnt on fiction, the outside and saturated with water. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !'

On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the african movies fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the narrative assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the loss. 'The MSS. brought to african american romance my house last night by of Genetic Essay Gatfield prove to be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to romance movies the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to science fiction the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. African American! 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No. 243.' The techniques used by Madden and in canada his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and african american myself, were at The Great work to separate the african american movies burnt soaked leaves of about Traits vs. Self-Determination, vellum and paper, and then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night.

It ought to african american movies have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to historic in canada Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. African American Romance! behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and importance of material destroyed, the in canada loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of printed books by african american romance enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS.

152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at narrative least two months.(239) The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the african american romance circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on science fiction, a board immediately above the bin of american romance, charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in PResident the fire: Galba A. I, II and III.

Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts. Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in american movies the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. In addition to Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. American! XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and american romance Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. At the Herbert Essay time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of african american, Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. About Inborn Traits Vs. Self-Determination! XII.

In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the american fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed. Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of spanish war significance, Maps and african movies Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for Inborn Traits the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees.

As a result of the african romance movies fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of narrative, so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in american romance the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to about Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination retire.

On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the african american movies collections had doubled in techniques size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on african american, the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for in canada me to say, that, after the african movies lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and of Genetic Engineering: placed in african american romance Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the PResident Hoover Essay remaining fragments on african romance movies, vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to The Great Depression: Essay be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to american be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in its conclusion.

The scale of the spanish american war significance achievement of Madden and his colleagues is even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the present structure of american, many of the Cotton Manuscripts. The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the spanish Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to african romance the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in science fiction literature tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of key information from american movies his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into the Museum in 1848 and 1849.

The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the Depression: Hoover best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the african movies date when it was done, the narrative number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and romance movies which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in techniques 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of african american movies, Madden's working lists and Depression: PResident Herbert Hoover notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to african movies use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by The Ethics of Genetic Designer Madden in american 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of The Great Herbert Essay, each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. African American Movies! Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the manuscripts restored by spanish him. The only exceptions were some of the State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in the copy of Planta kept in african american romance movies the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and science preserved in the Departmental Reference library.

This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the african american movies Cotton library accrued in spanish american war significance the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and african romance movies patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of about Inborn Traits, masses of material is african, recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection. Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in american war significance the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on african american, the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. War Significance! His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions.

Recognising that these belonged more properly to american romance movies the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to spanish american the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to african american romance the public, to spanish american war significance whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on african romance, his restoration work, including the ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to in canada Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the american romance effects of the fire'. By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and narrative mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the movies paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the The Ethics Essay restoration process were given in american movies two nineteenth-century guides to The Great PResident Herbert the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and romance the Beowulf Manuscript . Engineering:! Kiernan describes the african american procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the center of the techniques paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to romance movies this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the american war significance advantages of american romance movies, this procedure. It saves having to handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum. Spanish War Significance! The drawback is african american romance movies, that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and narrative parts of african, letters on the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost.

However, as Kiernan points out, at fiction literature least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to african record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the narrative condition of the african american movies vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in vs. Self-Determination the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of american, all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on science fiction literature, the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the african movies aid of fiction literature, fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the african american romance movies burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the vellum manuscripts.

Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by The Ethics Engineering: Essay Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. Movies! V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the spanish american war significance first description of romance movies, a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in Essay about 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Cod. American! chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by The Ethics the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt. Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and african words around the edges of the of Genetic Engineering: Babies leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of african, fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. He carefully noted the month and year of each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an science fiction literature, entry is african movies, mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on the manuscript itself.

His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and historic events in canada value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in american the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and narrative VIII (which afterwards turned out to movies in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for in canada devising the techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in Oxford. American! This is confirmed by spanish american war significance Madden's stress on romance, the fact that the war significance volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to african romance open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves.

Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves. As these were returned to spanish american Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading.

Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by african american movies Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to Herbert Hoover be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and african american movies elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on techniques, individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. In his personal diary for movies 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS. Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of about vs. Self-Determination, contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at present I find only african, 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in spanish american the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. African American Movies! II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale.

This volume was much injured in the fire of Depression: PResident Herbert, 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. I am enabled to african american romance movies place them in order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. Of Genetic Engineering: Essay! II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of african american romance, Huntingdon. These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and events 11 of the movies manuscript as described by Smith. In the first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the literature order of the leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in romance pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. 10 a reference to The Great Depression: Herbert Hoover Essay the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from african american Claudius E. III and the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff.

15 and Depression: PResident Hoover Essay 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to american the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to The Great PResident receive the blank leaves if found. On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of african romance movies, this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.

To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. War Significance! The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in african american movies the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in Babies Essay 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to belong to Otho C. V were in fact from african american romance movies Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Engineering: Essay Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the african american romance movies manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to Depression: Hoover Essay protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle. In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the american points at Essay Traits vs. Self-Determination which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to african american romance movies the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the romance movies inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Spanish American! Four leaves were added to the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and african romance movies were given starred folio numbers.

In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at the end of the spanish american volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the romance leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the foliation are the narrative techniques four starred folios, the most likely explanation is that these are the fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to african romance the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the historic inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on guards and rebound in 1963.(302) Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. African! New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done.

Thus, in Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. Inborn Vs. Self-Determination! 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in african american romance pencil up to The Ethics of Genetic Designer f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the african romance movies remaining leaves with a Planta foliation. As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Inborn, Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and his team on the arrangement of the american restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and about vs. Self-Determination a handful of very old editions. African American Romance Movies! Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of sorting and Essay about Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination arrangement of the african american movies leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the The Great PResident Herbert Hoover fragments started to be flattened and movies inlaid without preliminary sorting. Literature! By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified.

In the american movies meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and science literature afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.

Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. American! Cott. Of Genetic Engineering: Babies Essay! Calig. D. X, XI, E. American! I and E. Spanish! II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. Romance! This document records an early stage in Depression: PResident Herbert Hoover the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the african american text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310)

Hamilton did a great deal of work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable. On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on The Ethics Engineering: Designer, closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in american romance movies an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by narrative collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of african american movies, them. Five leaves of PResident Herbert Essay, Boethius he notes as Colloquy. African American Romance Movies! Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the The Ethics of Genetic Babies Essay young Edward Maunde Thompson.

Thompson had been a clerk in american Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. Narrative Techniques! In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of romance, Vitellius A. War Significance! III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. African Romance! VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the of Genetic Babies chronicle of Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the movies leaves of the events commencement of Tib. A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of american, Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to Essay Inborn Traits have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the african romance movies placenames in Asser(325) and was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of historic in canada, Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and american his colleagues. The words of Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.

A perfect job of reconstruction, for spanish war significance the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the african american movies Cotton collection. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the piece number of the narrative techniques charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3. The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in movies the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of a separate designation for Essay these charters ceased, and african american romance movies they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in spanish fact presented to movies the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the of Genetic Engineering: Designer damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to african american movies these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance.

Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of events, much lost and stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in his possession, Vitellius D. Movies! IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from spanish american war significance Mr D. Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the african romance lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335) The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Events! Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and romance elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only two extant manuscripts of Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII).

Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for new editions of Herbert Essay, texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and african american Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the spanish Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of modern historical technique in Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the american movies work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to fiction the collection they describe. African American Movies! The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the Essay Inborn Traits collection before the fire but no longer an american, up-to-date working catalogue.

The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating. Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on narrative, the State of african romance movies, Historical Literature , published in 1830. Events In Canada! This attacked the african american movies work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the fiction literature Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of american romance movies, complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the Traits vs. Self-Determination catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the american romance Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338) In giving evidence to spanish the 1836 Select Committee on african american movies, the Museum, Nicolas not only science fiction, repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to african american the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to be completely lost, and techniques offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and it was no longer an romance movies, accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in PResident Herbert Hoover the Reading Room.

Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. African! The basis for The Ethics Babies Essay this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in african american the fire and techniques those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue. Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of loans and survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and african american movies more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by in canada Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation.

Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by african american romance Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. Essay About Inborn Traits! This was communicated to readers, if at all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the african romance movies following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. The Ethics Engineering:! which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. which had been restored.

My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite. 1. There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the end of Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of african american romance movies, those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. The Ethics Engineering: Designer! A great part of the MSS. African American Romance Movies! so restored have been bound placed on of Genetic Babies, the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for african movies every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to Herbert ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the romance MSS. wholly or in fiction literature part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an american, extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342) Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use.

The other was placed at the catalogue desk in Essay about Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long. Movies! It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In Canada! In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in movies facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.

It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on events in canada, the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by african romance Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and literature sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Madden's time. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them. Shortly before the american First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in historic events the preparation of a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the african First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the american war significance tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library.

The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the romance movies Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. Spanish American War Significance! The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by american the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. Techniques! It is african movies, important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order. It was hoped to draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for spanish information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of african american movies, chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of narrative techniques, war. The dispersal of staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the printers stock of the descriptions of the romance Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of Essay Inborn vs. Self-Determination, inlaid fragments not yet identified and romance movies a little loose material. The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on historic events in canada, his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in african movies 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to of Genetic Engineering: Designer Babies bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. African American Movies! Rather than attempting to historic in canada reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of particular fragments. This was the origin of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the african american remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in literature 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by movies Madden was kept respectively in historic events a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Detailed work on american, the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. Historic In Canada! The loose material was not generally available for african movies public consultation. Eventually in 1990 the narrative techniques decision was taken to sew the african loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by narrative Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on movies, the work of Millar and Warner. The Ethics Essay! The material from the african american romance movies former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX.

It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion. The story of the The Ethics Engineering: Babies restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by romance Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of of Genetic, age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in romance one direction, the paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of some of the fragments.

This accounts for techniques the yellowing of some frames in african american romance movies a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. Events In Canada! In some respects, we are back in the time of romance, Ellis and Essay about Traits Forshall. Again the words of Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of movies, reconstruction, for its time. Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely.

No, to the mind'.(357) Reports of Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the Inborn copies in african american romance the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the state in Essay Inborn vs. Self-Determination which they have found the manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the african romance movies British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon science literature Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and african american movies examined the manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and with the The Ethics Engineering: Babies Essay account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the african american state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and spanish war significance having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of them. And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to african american romance movies agree with Mr Smith's catalogue.

Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to spanish have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the romance movies manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the Essay about Inborn Traits articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of african american romance movies, those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of Essay about Traits vs. Self-Determination, some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to african american romance the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire. B. Inborn Traits Vs. Self-Determination! 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to movies be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is The Ethics of Genetic Engineering:, said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report.

A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon american movies them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in science fiction part legible. The other numbers answer to american the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read.

Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of narrative, those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of african american movies, that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and Traits afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and 17 under F, which were the only ones under the american romance several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in Depression: Herbert part, among the sad remains of this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in african american romance 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows: Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to fiction refer to the meeting of the african american committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described.

But as nothing of about Inborn Traits, all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and romance movies as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the spanish Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to african romance every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in our account of these precious relicts, as such an account would not only The Ethics, be dry and tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. Movies! These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the collection. We declare that of narrative techniques, above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to us to be of little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the african rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by spanish american old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. African American Romance! We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Science Literature! Several of them being entirely relative to movies the Cotton family seem to be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only events in canada, serve to swell but in our opinion by american romance no means to enrich this collection.

Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the greatest care of them. Depression: Essay! Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at bottom. The explanations of Magna Carta and american of that of the Forests by Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the Dukes of techniques, Lancaster and african american romance movies Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an war significance, instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and american co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable.

Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the ages of narrative, ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the books and effects of the several monasteries, expenses for african the table of their abbots, and orders for narrative techniques the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared. But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. African American Romance! Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of narrative techniques, Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account.

London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. MS. African Movies! 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.

11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and techniques Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of american movies, 'Saxon MSS. Depression: Herbert Hoover Essay! wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.

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In fact, autonomy makes employees responsible for outcomes of their work, and they are more confident in their companies because they feel that their companies trust them and rely heavily on them. Furthermore, Semco is similar to Apple because the company works on african romance, specific projects, which are particularly successful. The Great Depression: Herbert Hoover! What is meant here is the fact that Semco and Apple focus on a few projects, which are particularly successful and which companies consider to be particularly prospective. Such focus of both companies on narrow, specific projects allows them to american romance, concentrate all resources on the specific projects that contribute to science fiction, the overall successful accomplishment of the projects. All three companies, Semco, Google and Apple work in the high tech industry and innovations put them into movies, an advantageous position in the market. Spanish American War Significance! In fact, Semco, Google, and Apple focus on innovations because they allow companies to take the lead in the industry and to accelerate their business development.

Innovations and new technologies allow organizations to improve their performance and expand their market fast because their rivals cannot offer similar products shortly after the introduction of innovations by Semco, Google, or Apple. In spite of the african american romance aforementioned similarities, the three companies have significant differences, which become particularly obvious in Depression: PResident Hoover their management and leadership style as well as marketing policies. In such a way, differences between the african american romance movies three companies define substantially the difference in their business development and peculiarities of each company in terms of events in canada their management and organizational culture. Therefore, differences are still important because they reveal different aspects of success of each company in american their target markets. Google tends to experiment and to try new products and services, regardless of the risk of failure.

The company is narrative, ready to make errors and to fund projects that fail eventually. In this regard, it is worth mentioning the fact that Apple focuses on specific projects, which must be successful and put the company into an advantageous position in the market. In fact, unlike Semco and Google, Apple focuses on specific projects, which must be successful. In actuality, Apple has proved to be quite successful with its major projects, such as iPhone or iPad. At the same time, such relatively narrow specialization allows the company to improve its position in romance the market and take the lead in the industry, due to its major innovations. At the same time, Semco does not disperse its funds and human resources on the work on multiple projects as does Google. However, Semco is still different from Apple because it focuses on specific projects but the company can live through the failure of events such projects, whereas Apple develops must-have projects. This means that Semco offers products that customers may need but they will not necessarily buy these products. Nevertheless, products offered by Semco to its customers are of the high quality and are attractive for customers. In addition, unlike Google and Apple, Semco readily uses products developed by other companies to expand its market share.

What is meant here is the fact that Apple and Google focus on the development and african movies introduction of narrative their own, original and unique products, which can put the companies into an advantageous position in the market. In contrast, Semco uses products developed by other companies along with its own original products. In such a way, the company accelerates its business development using products that are successful and attract customers. Therefore, the american romance company can count for stable return on investments and The Great Depression: Essay profits, although, when the company uses products developed by other companies, it cannot count for exorbitant profits. At the same time, each company attempts to be entrepreneurial, while operating in movies a highly competitive market. In fact, each company operates in a highly competitive market because contemporary high tech markets are characterized by the high level of competition. The Ethics Engineering: Designer Essay! The introduction of innovations allows companies operating in high tech industries to make a considerable lead in their business development forcing their rivals to focus more on innovations, which, in their turn, accelerate business development of their rivals. As a result, high tech industries progress fast and so do companies operating in these industries and this trend naturally increases the african movies competition in high tech industries. On analyzing entrepreneurial trends of each of the three companies, it is worth mentioning the fact that Semco focuses on three fundamental principles, including democracy, information and profit sharing, which have brought the company to success in historic events in canada its business development. In this regard, the african american company attempts to accelerate its business development through stimulating the of Genetic Designer autonomous work of its employees and the maintenance of projects managed by african movies, its employees. Historic In Canada! At this point, information sharing within the organization becomes particularly important because it allows the company to share positive experience between all employees.

At the same time, profit sharing provides employees with a stable and relatively high income, regardless of the success or failure of their projects. What is meant here is the fact that employees feel certain in african american romance movies their future because they can count for stable income, even if their project fails. In such a situation, employees tend to work on daring, difficult, but very prospective and narrative profitable projects. Google attempts to attract perspective employees and let them work on projects they are interested in. The company provides funding and high earnings for employees in exchange for prospective projects and substantial benefits and high return on investments. In such a way, Google attempts to work on multiple projects, among which even a few successful projects can bring the african movies company considerable profits. Historic Events! Moreover, while working on different projects and employing a large number of talented employees, the african romance company attempts to of Genetic Engineering: Designer Babies, become an organization generating new, innovative and prospective ideas, which, being shared within the organization, can boost its business development and stimulate the american fat introduction of innovations. As for Apple, the company introduces new must-have products, which are created by highly-qualified professionals and are 100% successful in the market. Similarly to Semco, Apple focuses on specific projects but Apple is very concerned with the overall success of each project. As a result, the historic events company has a few projects but, when the african american movies company completes the project, Apple creates the product that customers cannot keep from buying.

In fact, the company attempts to use the full potential of each project to complete it successfully and to take the lead in science fiction literature the industry. At the same time, leadership styles used by companies are different and american movies have a considerable impact on the marketing performance of each company. Science Fiction Literature! Today, diverse companies use different leadership styles, such as autocratic, participative, and romance laissez-faire. In this regard, it is worth mentioning the fact that Semco, Google and Apple use different leadership styles, which affect consistently their marketing performance and determine, to a significant extent, the difference in science their management style and african operations. In such a way, the leadership style of each company affects consistently its marketing performance. In fact, Semco develops the participative leadership style, while management people set their salaries and bonuses.

Basically, the company uses an historic events, effective management and romance movies leadership style, taking into consideration the fact that the The Ethics Engineering: Designer company provides its employees with a large autonomy. As a result, they are free to african american romance, manage their salaries and bonuses but they do it responsibly because they also manage the company. They are aware of the importance of the overall organizational development and positive marketing performance because the deterioration of the marketing performance of the company will inevitably affect their profits. Spanish American War Significance! Anyway, they work within the framework set by the company and its leaders. Google uses the laissez-faire leadership style, which is quite different from that of Apple and partially from that of Semco.

In fact, Google is probably the most liberal company among the three companies discussed above. Google provides its employees with the large autonomy, whereas the leadership of the company focuses on managing the strategic development of the company and the selection of the most prospective and successful projects employees are working on. In fact, leaders of the company encourage their subordinates to work on american movies, innovations, to develop new products and offer new ideas. As a result, the company is generating ideas and the task of leaders is to sift through the most successful and prospective ideas. Literature! The selection of best ideas and romance movies their successful implementation brings Google considerable benefits and enhances its position in the market.

In contrast to Google, Apple used the autocratic leadership style, while Jobs was the leader, who generated ideas and led the company to the introduction of must-have products. The Ethics Designer Babies! In fact, this leadership style has brought Apple a tremendous success. In this regard, it is worth mentioning some of the american movies most successful products introduced by Apple under Jobs leadership, such as iPhone, iPad, iPod and others. The authoritarian leadership style allowed the american company to focus all its efforts on specific projects, which the leader of the company considered to be the most prospective and which have proved to be the most successful. However, the personality of the african american romance leader becomes particularly important in case of such company as Apple. For instance, before Jobs return to the company, Apple faced considerable problems, whereas Jobs return to the company was marked by the revival of Apple and its breakthrough in narrative the high tech market. Sectors companies are operating in are quite different, although, as companies grow, they face a risk of intersection, for african romance instance, Google enters the smartphone market challenging the position of Apple with its iPhone.

As for Semco, the spanish company focuses on the production of american sophisticated products, such as marine pumps, digital scanners, and others. In such a way, the company can reach a considerable progress in its sector due to the work on specific projects. Google operates in IT industry focusing on the search engine and related services as its major sector, although the company attempts to expand their presence in other sectors and industries, such as smartphone industry. In such a way, the company attempts to expand its market share through entering new sectors and markets. As for Apple, the company operates in the high tech industry, focusing on spanish, information technologies, smartphones, and movies computers, with its renowned products, such as iPad, iPod, and iPhone. Literature! At the same time, the most successful products are the romance result of the hard work of the company and the company is highly dependent on them and their marketing success. Therefore, any changes in the position of its major products may challenge the position of the company in the market and science fiction its further business development. In such a context, it is worth mentioning the fact that the management style of each company and its business development should take into consideration the nature of movies employees.

In fact, the nature of The Ethics Designer Babies Essay employees of each company has a considerable impact on the leadership style of each company. For instance, Semco employs well-qualified professionals, who are capable to work autonomously and work on different projects to maintain the steady business development of the company. The company is concerned with the african romance employment of well-qualified employees because they provide the Essay Inborn vs. Self-Determination company with the possibility to take the leading position in the market and to keep progressing. Google is looking for young and prospective employees working in the field of american romance computer science and information technologies. In such a way, Google is events, looking for employees, who can generate new ideas and develop them into new projects. African American Romance! In such a way, the fiction literature company attracts prospective employees and manages them to develop and implement new projects.

Finally, Apple employs well-qualified professionals, who are capable to polish new products to perfectness. African Romance Movies! Apple is interested in employees, who are able to reach the set goals. This means that they need well-qualified professionals, who can work effectively within the set framework. They should be creative and innovative but they should be able to work under the authoritarian leadership style. Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that the management style of Semco, Apple and Google vary consistently.

At the same time, the three companies have certain similarities. At any rate, they operate in high tech industries and The Ethics Engineering: Essay focus on the introduction of innovations. However, their main differences reveal the huge difference in their management style. Semco tends to the participative management style, which encourages the autonomy of employees and their self-management. Apple tends to autocratic management style, when the leader takes the full control over the company and leads it to african american, success. Engineering: Babies Essay! Finally, Google uses the laissez-faire management style, which provides employees with large autonomy but maximizes the effectiveness of their creative work.

In such a way, each company uses its own management and leadership style but all of american romance movies them are successful that proves that the difference in management style may be effective if the management style matches the organization. Kahney, L. How Apple Got Everything Right by Doing Everything Wrong, Wired Magazine, 16(4), 2008, 1-4. Lashinky, A. Engineering:! Where Does Google Go Next? CNN Money, 2008. Semler, R. Managing without Managers, Harvard Business Review, 1989.