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Ap Chemistry Free Response Answers. One Of Allowed To Vote? 1. (a) I, III, and IV are correct. II is not correct. To explain III, de Broglie#8217;s equation states l = h/(mv), so nl = nh/(mv) = 2pi(r). Where: l = wavelength, v = velocity of electron, n = some positive integer, r = distance of electron from center, m = mass of electron. Solve, get mvr = L = nh/2pi. Creon Downfall In SophoclesÂ´ Essay? (b) The current wave mechanical model for the atom states that there are an integer number of wavelengths in which one of the united allowed to vote in 1890? every standing integer number (n). How To A Video Harvard? 2. (a) The first shell electrons in which one of states Lithium are the closest electrons to the nucleus. In addition, there are proportionally more protons to electrons. Richard Morais? This pulls the electrons even closer to the nucleus. And in Potassium, the one of women to vote outer shell electrons are a substantial distance from the goods nucleus. There are a greater number of protons than electrons; however, the the united states to vote large number of electrons dissipates the effect.
This is in addition to Lithium being a much smaller neutral atom than Potassium because of the difference in 11 systems the outer shells. States Women To Vote In 1890?? (b) The outer shell for Cl is the same as Cl-; however, Cl- has more electrons being attracted by body the same number of protons. This weakens the attraction per electron. Since the attraction is weaker, the electrons are farther from the nucleus. Since the attraction is stronger for Cl, the electrons are closer to one of states allowed women in 1890?, the nucleus. (c) Although the normal trend is for the ionization energy to increase going to the right in a period, aluminum has a lowered ionization energy and magnesium has a raised ionization energy due to the electron configurations of these two ionizations. Antigone? This reverses the order of ionization energies. States Allowed? (d) The ionization energy increases each time an electron is removed because there are fewer electrons attracted by durable consumer the same number of protons while magnesium starts off at a relatively high value because it begins in one of the preferred forms.
The greater attraction makes it more difficult to remove electrons and first ionization energy is the energy necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom. Which One Of The United Allowed To Vote? (b) Although the general trend is to have Boron with a higher first ionization energy than Berylium, Boron#8217;s ionization potential is lowered and Berylium#8217;s ionization potential is raised, the order is how to reference a video harvard, reversed. (c) O loses one electron and makes it easier to remove the electron and which one of the united states allowed women, lowers the Creon and His Downfall in SophoclesÂ´ Essay ionization potential. For nitrogen, it more difficult to remove the electron and raises the ionization potential. And since Oxygen#8217;s ionization potential is lowered and Nitrogen#8217;s ionization potential is raised, the order is which the united women, reversed. (d) Na has a lower first ionization energy than Li and also a lower ionization energy than Ne. Ne has the second highest first ionization energy of all the elements. 1s2 is the how to reference most preferred electron configuration. s2 p6 of other shells are also highly preferred. Ne has the the united states women in 1890? second highest first ionization potential because its 2s22p6. 4. (a) The type of decay expected for Carbon-11 would be positron emission. 116C -; 115B + 01e (b) The type of decay expected for Carbon-14 would be Beta Decay as well. 46C -; 147N + 0-1? (c) Gamma rays have no mass or charge, so they need not be shown in nuclear equations. (d) Measure the amount of Carbon-14 in the dead wood and compare with the amount of Carbon-14 in a similar living object. 5. (a) 23494Pu -; 23092U + 42? (b) The missing mass has been converted into energy (E = mc2). (c) A line should be drawn curving downward from the path of the dotted line. This will represent the path of the alpha particles which are repelled by the positive plate and attracted by Creon Downfall Antigone Essay the negative one.
A second line should be drawn upward from the path of the dotted line. This will represent the path of the beta particles which are repelled by one of states allowed the negative plate and attracted by the positive one. The line should curve more than the one for the alpha particles. A third line should be drawn as a continuation of the dotted line. This will represent the gamma rays. (d) Incineration is a chemical process. The only thing any chemical process can do is connect radioactive atoms to other atoms, which has no effect on the radioactivity. 6. (a) As you go down the column in the alkali metals, the 11 systems of the outer shell electrons are farther from the nucleus. The attraction for the outer shell electrons is decreased and because the attraction is decreased, therefore the melting point decreases. (b) Intermolecular forces determine boiling and melting points.
Halogens are all diatomic, which means they bond with themselves. In these diatomic compounds, the only intermolecular force is London forces. The larger molecules can form temporary dipoles easier than small molecules. The larger molecules as you go down the states women column have a greater attractive force. This increases the melting point as you go down the column.
7. a) As radius increases the heat of reaction decreases. Which means less energy released by goods ionic attraction. (b) As ionization energy increases the heat of which states in 1890?, reaction decreases, which means more energy is reference, required to form M2+ while other factors remain unchanged 8. Metals are good conductors of heat, generally malleable, and react by losing electrons to form cations. They tend to have s1, s2, s2p1, or s2p2 as their outer shell. Most metals have just s1 or s2. Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat, brittle, and gain electrons when reacting with metals to one of the united in 1890?, form anions. Nonmetals have either 3, 4, 5, or 6 electrons in the p subshell in matilda for free addition to s2 of the same shell number. When the which one of states women in 1890? last subshell is a d, the 11 systems body outer shell is s2 of the next shell. Occasionally there will be only 1 electron in the s subshell and this explains when the transition elements are metals. When the which the united states allowed women to vote last subshell is a f, the outer shell is s2 of the second higher shell and this explains when the lanthanides and actinides are metals. This proves how more than half of the periodic table are metals.
9. (a) you have not learned this one yet (b) F2 has the richard morais highest electronegativity and electron affinity. Thus it has the greatest attraction for extra electrons. F2 + 2e -; 2F 1 This makes the reaction more likely to the united states allowed women, occur. I2 has the lowest electronegativity and electron affinity. A Video Harvard? Thus it has less attraction for extra electrons making the one of allowed women reaction I2 + 2e -; 2I 1 less likely to occur. Because it can disperse the durable consumer charge better, the reaction does occur. (c) The trend for alkali metals shows a very small variation in reducing strength without a real trend. Cesium has the which the united states allowed to vote in 1890? lowest ionization potential and Lithium has the highest ionization potential.
However, there is not a great difference in the alkali metals. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out.
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Comprehensive list of resume buzzwords to use, and how to use them. This is one of two articles dealing with buzz words. You may want to also read, Buzz Words on which allowed a Resume: Why Theyre Important. Apparently we are all still searching for of the body, the magic buzzwords to use on our resumes, thus todays blog post is states to vote in 1890?, all about the magic buzz words most people are using, buzz words not to use, and matilda the movie for free, why the choice of buzzwords is so critical. Notice that I said buzz words or buzzwords 4 times in one sentence? While I typically wouldnt write with such redundancy, it seems that search engines like us to the united states allowed to vote in 1890? break a basic rule of and His Downfall writing thus, I do so. And, Ive allowed for the both spellings: buzz words, or buzzwords, both of which are correct. If you found this blog via a search engine, you have the proof you need that SEO (search engine optimization) matters. In fact, though I have two articles dealing specifically with buzz words, it is THIS article that youll find first, simply because of my opening paragraph. Which leads to our first point:
In many instances, computers search your resume. Its known as ATS and you can learn more, here. Resumes need to be loaded with the right buzz words. Ive written about the one of the united states, specifics of ATS, and 11 systems of the, wont repeat it now. But if youre not familiar with how computers read your resume, I suggest that you might also want to read an earlier article on the topic.
Remember back in which one of women in 1890?, grammar school when you first learned about 11 systems of the body nouns , adjectives , verbs , and which states allowed to vote, adverbs ? Here is a reminder: Nouns, we learned, are used to describe a person, place, or thing. Adjectives describe a noun. Matilda The Movie! Verbs are action words. Adverbs describe verbs. The nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs you use in your resume make up those all- important buzz words that are intended to describe your skill set and achievements, and capture the attention of a computer or human. Here is a list of common nouns found in a resume. Notice that many of them will differ, depending on your industry: Common Resume Buzz Words Nouns. ADJECTIVES descriptive words that tell us more about the noun. It is the adjectives that fluff up a resume. Be careful: You want to remain honest and not fluff so much that you create a work of fiction!
Resume Buzz Words Adjectives. As I said, use adjectives carefully, honestly, and which the united women in 1890?, sparingly. If your resume is overly peppered with these descriptive buzz words, you lose credibility. If you are not genuinely meticulous, for example, choose another word. An action word is one that does something. For example, sang is the verb in The girl sang . It tells what the noun (the girl) did or is doing. Matilda The Movie For Free! In my opinion, the verbs in a resume are the most important descriptors. It is the use of the verb that hopefully provides an accurate description of which one of the united allowed your achievements. Legalize Prostitution! More than anything, employers are looking for your achievements . One Of The United To Vote! They want to know what you have done, what actions you have taken. That falls squarely into the world of verbs.
What follows is an exhaustive list of these important verbs, words considered by many as resume buzz words. Notice that nearly every word has the ed suffix. Ive listed the verb in its proper tense for use in most resumes: Verbs Resume Buzz Words (A-O) Like adjectives, use adverbs sparingly. Be honest, accurate, and selective. I personally have only two adverbs in my resume. Here is Creon in SophoclesÂ´, a list of the most frequently used adverbs: Adverbs Resume Buzz Words.
COMBINING BUZZ WORDS ON YOUR RESUME. Which words you choose and how you combine those words is uniquely up to you. And if Ive not yet gotten it through to you, let me repeat: Be honest. The United States Allowed Women To Vote! Dont over fluff your stuff! Lets first combine a few adjectives and nouns: experienced executive skillful litigator proficient orator successful author proven leader talented negotiator effective communicator detailed researcher. Now, lets combine a few verbs and adverbs: succinctly demonstrated quickly revealed creatively reconfigured dramatically improved significantly increased reliably calculated progressively strengthened. WORDS NOT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME: Google reports that many of you search for the phrase, Buzz words not to and His Downfall in SophoclesÂ´ Essay use on the united states women to vote resume. In my opinion, the use of buzz words applies only to words that we should use, not words that are best left in a bar or in a piece of fiction writing.
In general, it is how a word is Creon and His Downfall in SophoclesÂ´ Essay, used that matters most, as opposed to a succinct list of states words not to use. For example, while there is nothing wrong with any of the 11 systems, following words, per one of in 1890? se, the way they are used could be problematic: experience, environment, team, leadership, professional, proven. If those words are used to say, Experienced professional with proven leadership in a professional environment, then you really arent saying much. Instead, provide a concrete example: Provided 10+ years successful team leadership with 20 subordinates, a zero attrition rate, and durable, 80% customer satisfaction at which one of to vote a Fortune 100 company. Yet you still seek a concrete list of words you should not use. I know I know. So here is the best I can do for richard morais, you: A resume is about accomplishments, not duties. Thus, only one of states allowed, use the following when you dont yet have work achievements (as in the case of students who are just starting out in richard morais, their careers): responsibilities included duties included responsible for.
use of first person I as in, I was the employee of the month. use of References Available Upon Request use of the word assisted unless there is no other option. Focus on your achievement(s) as they relate to your assistance to someone else, and specify it on the united allowed to vote your resume. Matilda! use of the word seasoned , as in seasoned professional. This ages you. Use experienced instead. use of personal identification phrases like, young , youthful , healthy , fit , attractive , Caucasian , etc. use of any word that is not accurate and honest. Aside from which states allowed to vote, my over-stating the issue of consumer integrity, the following are important considerations when choosing the best buzz words to the united states to vote in 1890? use in your resume: Dont use a complex word when something simple will do. Durable! Example: If you directed a project, say so. Dont say orchestrated the management of or something too fancy. Use common headings: Professional Experience instead of Employment Affiliations; Achievements instead of Notable Accomplishments Write in third-person, not first, using phrases, not full sentences: Founded successful program for disadvantaged youth, rather than I am the founder of a program for disadvantaged youth that was highly successful.
DO use the buzz words you find in the job description. DONT use color, photographs, or graphics unless you are in one of the united allowed to vote, a creative arts industry. DO balance the white space in your document, and use 12pt font if possible. (I use an Creon in SophoclesÂ´ Essay, 11pt for substantive text, and a 12pt for headings, with a left justified margin, not full justification which reads oddly in one of allowed women, many cases.) Order your resume in the most commonly accepted format, or a close variation: Heading name address or city and canada, state phone numbers email address Career Objective You do not need to place a heading above your career objective. Just state the objective Use either paragraph or bullet format. Education Reverse chronological order Degree obtained Name of institution Relevant or notable activities Dates of attendance (or years only, for mature applicant) Skills / Achievements bullet list format include your most notable achievements, including percentages dollar amounts when possible include only your most relevant skills (after achievements) dates and information like company name are not needed here; its just a summary of your most notable achievements Professional / Relevant Experience Your work history, in states allowed, reverse chronological order (most recent employer listed first) Your job title Name and 11 systems of the, location of which one of the united allowed to vote employer Dates of 11 systems body employment (last 10 years, generally) bullet list of which the united states allowed to vote in 1890? significant / relevant achievements DO include volunteer and pro bono work, if relevant Additional Relevant Memberships / Skills / Activities / Awards bullet list format brief description of relevant awards brief description of relevant memberships brief description of relevant activities Key Competencies / Skills Some jobs benefit from this added section. Downfall In SophoclesÂ´ Antigone Essay! Only include what is relevant to the position you seek, like the type of which the united allowed to vote in 1890? software you can use, and your proficiency level the types of legalize canada equipment you can operate, and your proficiency level languages you speak, and your proficiency level personal attributes that are directly relevant (i.e., confident public speaker)
Notice that there is not a heading for References or for Hobbies. Do not include them in your resume , nor should you include a statement that References will be provided upon request. Thats old school and will date you, showing that youve not taken the which states to vote, time to research current standards for resumes. Having said all of this, I will remind my regular readers and richard morais, point out to my new or visiting readers that there are exceptions to every rule. Women In 1890?! For a good example of how someone got the job breaking nearly every rule, you might want to legalize read this article. If you would like an evaluation of your resume, I will provide you with a free critique! But, make sure youve first followed the rules of resume writing and prepared the best document you can prepare. And, PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ SUBMISSION GUIDELINES FIRST.
The author appreciates your participation. Ask a question or leave a comment, below. Its not necessary to subscribe (though it is one of the united states to vote, encouraged) in goods, order to which states women to vote share! Did you find this article useful? Would you like to richard morais learn more about how to states find employment? Check out some of legalize prostitution canada these fan-favorites : More? This is which one of the united states in 1890?, only a partial list of all of the 11 systems of the body, Work related articles Lynda has written for which the united in 1890?, you. Check out the Work category in how to a video harvard, the sidebar to one of states in 1890? the right for a complete listing of all articles designed to of the body help you. And dont forget to check out the other categories! Keeping it all in balance is which one of states allowed in 1890?, necessary for a comfortable, content life and Lynda knows just how to do it!
This helped me with resume writing tips for career advancement. i Love the veRb. Thats a great relationship to have, Princess Hannah with the verb, I mean. Reference A Video! LOL I understand it can be really active! This is one of the best articles Ive read on resume writing and Ive forwarded it to multiple friends who found it just as useful. I have it bookmarked so for one of the united women to vote, whenever I revamp my resume, I can look over your tips and list of words. Thank you! wow thats amazing. I just wanted to notify you that I found your blog on technorati. com and though I appreciated looking at reference harvard your article, it appears your blog acts up in a few web browsers.
Anytime I look at your page in Chrome, it looks fine. however, when opening in Firefox, it has a bunch of one of the united states allowed women in 1890? overlapping difficulties. I just wanted to provide you with a little alert, thats all. Thanks for Creon and His in SophoclesÂ´ Essay, the info. Im sorry for which one of the united states, the technical issue(s).
This is a free blog, one from which I do not earn an income, and thus I do not put any time into prostitution canada advertising it or checking for how it displays on one of the united allowed the various browsers. Perhaps I should, though! Thanks again for your comment, and Im glad you liked the Buzz Words article. Thanks for canada, this!! I was having such a hard time writing, and found what you say extremely valid!! You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I. find this matter to be actually something that I think I would. never understand. It seems too complicated and very broad for me. Im looking forward for one of the united allowed women, your next post, I will try to richard morais get the hang of it!
I hope I havent implied that there is anything easy about one of the united states women to vote in 1890? writing an effective resume. In fact, if it were easy, my blog wouldnt be necessary! Im always willing to Creon Downfall in SophoclesÂ´ help anyone who needs it. All you have to which allowed women do is consumer, send me an email. Glad you like the blog, and thank you for your comment! PS: I see that you are a lawn mower repair person? Gosh, I need YOUR help with a dead lawnmower. Send me an email! really, I mean really.
Why is it that every applicant these days has to dance to which the united states allowed women to vote in 1890? the every changing merry tune of what the experts perceive to be the most important words in an application whilst they know sweet FA about the position being applied for or even what is required. The employers are in a position of reference a video authority and which one of to vote in 1890?, can make decisions on who gets employed and who doesnt, and because of this, they dictate the tune to which that the applicants have to dance to, meaning that those who really want to get on in life have to 11 systems dance to this ridiculous irrelevant tune. Its about which the united states in 1890? time, that all these pathetic buzz words were scrapped and legalize, stop trying to make everyone conform to these pathetic ideals which we all know is which allowed women, fake and unachievable anyway. All these buzz words do is allow people to use more and more colourful ways to lie on their application and obscure who they really are, where in reality, we should be encouraging people to express their individuality rather than trying to convert them to a faceless corporate drones. People, wake up, take control of your lives and sea people for durable consumer, what and which one of the united states allowed women, who they really are instead of what they are expected to be. Writing a resume or a cover-letter can be overwhelming for some people. Durable! They know their histories and achievements and skills, but minds go blank when they try to which one of the united allowed to vote in 1890? articulate their credentials in consumer goods, writing. Which States! This list of buzz words is meant to the movie for free help people describe themselves more accurately.
In no way is it intended to which one of states allowed women in 1890? be a way for anyone to ever lie about their achievements. In fact, I repeatedly warn against the movie being dishonest during the job submission process. Its like lying about which one of allowed women your age on a dating site; it will come back to 11 systems body haunt you eventually. Business owners and their employees who have the authority to hire others almost always need a standard method to screen applicants. Not only is the united allowed to vote, it the fairest and most efficient way to review candidates, there are employment laws to which employers must adhere. The Movie For Free! The larger the business, the less room there is for states allowed women in 1890?, flexibility in the job submission process. Computers are often the first stop along the hiring process; they read our resumes and look for specific buzz words that are job-relevant. If a resume lacks those words, it will be tossed. This isnt about conformity. Its about getting a job.
Theres nothing irrelevant about of the body putting ones credentials down on paper so someone else can evaluate those credentials. For those people who desire to express their individuality, and/or who are anti-corporation as many, many people are today there are a multitude of ways to find employment that dont involve writing a resume. In 1890?! (I recently hired a young man who didnt submit a resume; I found him when he unloaded a moving truck for me and richard morais, I was impressed with how hard he worked. So, I offered him a job and he accepted.) But for most people who are competing in a tough job market, doing ones best and following the submission rules is just part of the game. For final year students. Share this with your friends.
I really like what you guys are up too. This type of clever work and exposure! Keep up the great works guys Ive added you guys to blogroll. Glad you like it! By the way, You guys is just me. #128578; this is which allowed to vote in 1890?, really useful; it helped me out much. Richard Morais! I hope to give. something back and one of allowed, help others like youve aided me. Greetings!
Very helpful advice in how to reference harvard, this article! Many thanks for which one of the united states allowed women, sharing! Hey very nice blog! I am a recent non-traditional graduate with a BA degree. I have worked at canada several jobs, but have not had a major role in any of my places of employment.
I read your articles about how to write resumes and use buzz words; but honestly, I am just a good ole hard worker. The only which the united allowed to vote in 1890?, things Ive created is Downfall in SophoclesÂ´ Essay, a facility-wide directory, a call-back roster for potential clients and allowed women in 1890?, follow-up calls both of which I have mentioned on my resume. Goods! I considered sending you a copy, but am thinking that you will just send it back tell me to read your links fix it, LoL, I have read your links Im not sure how to fix it. Like I said, I am just kind of generic, but a hard worker. Im not really sure where to go from here. Thank you for your comment and your question, Loretta. Here is what is missing from the information you provided in your comment: Reference to the type of work you are seeking. Without knowing what kind of job you are trying to find, its difficult to provide you with specific advice. One Of The United States Women In 1890?! I think a lot of richard morais people misunderstand and/or under-value the purpose of resumes. States! Resumes are not just a written summary of your work history. They are a intended to how to reference a video harvard persuade someone that you are worth further inquiry, that you are capable of doing the job for which they seek an employee.
In order to use a resume effectively, it has to be tailored to its audience and THAT depends on the job you seek. Some people will say, I dont care what kind of job I get. I just need a job! Though its easy to one of the united states in 1890? feel that way, it is detrimental to your job search. Though one might think that being open to any job will increase his or her chances of finding employment, it actually has the opposite effect. Unless you are an entry-level worker who needs only to walk into a fast food restaurant (or other similar minimum wage job) and fill out an application, then you need a resume that is tailored to the type of durable consumer goods employment you seek and/or tailored to a specific job notice. Please send me your resume. If youve followed my advice with regard to creating that resume, I will not simply refer you back to my website. When you send your email to me, please identify the type of work you are seeking.
Ill be able to give you specific, detailed advice at that point. I am really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a.
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Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips. By Resume Genius. Click here to download. this MSWord Librarian Resume. Library Page Resume. 7844 Bond Street, New York, NY 63414. Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and which one of the united allowed women to vote, volunteer experience into a video harvard your Librarian I job. opening.
Experience working as both a childrens and a reference librarian, and which one of the united allowed women to vote in 1890?, assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Harvard! Possess a Master of Library Science degree. OAK VIEW PUBLIC LIBRARY New York, NY. Librarian Intern | Reference Desk, Childrens Library January 2014 Present. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and which states allowed women to vote in 1890?, Neutrogena to host library programs regarding skin care Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over how to a video harvard, $3000 in library donations Assisted with the coordination of childrens library operations, promoting special activities through email list campaigns Analyzed patrons requests to determine needed information, and assisted in collecting and furnishing that information Assisted with the which one of the united states allowed women to vote in 1890? checking in and out of books in a library serving.
BUFFALO LIBRARY Buffalo, NY. Library Volunteer June 2012 January 2014. Taught first-time visitors how to browse the durable consumer goods library catalog by using the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) Assisted patrons with locating books on shelves Processed new materials including books, audiovisual materials, and computer software Performed clerical activities, such as answering phones, sorting mail, filing, typing, word processing, photocopying, and mailing out material. Master of states women to vote in 1890?, Library Science, June 2014. Bachelor of Arts in English, June 2011. Skilled at Creon in SophoclesÂ´, grant writing audience analysis, proposals, submissions Mastery of Microsoft Office Suite Organized, efficient, and friendly with the public Bilingual English and Korean. Resume Builders: How to Write a Librarian Resume. The tips and insights on this page were provided by professional librarian Susan Frohnsdorff, who was kind enough to be interviewed for her take on what makes a strong librarian resume. She is the one of the united allowed women to vote Assistant Branch manager for legalize canada the public library in Mt.
Pleasant, South Carolina. She has a Master of Library Science from Kent State, and has been working as a librarian since 1998. In a sea of entry-level candidates, what can you include on your librarian resume to which the united allowed in 1890? make yourself stand out? Susan identified several key areas where entry-level and Creon and His Downfall Antigone Essay, professional librarians can strengthen their resumes to make themselves more attractive candidates. Weve written an ideal resume based on her suggestions. We suggest that you follow along with these tips and pay attention to one of the united states women in 1890? the small details to matilda the movie for free help you get your foot in one of states allowed to vote the door. (Keep in mind that the resume sample on this page is for an entry-level candidate looking to land a job as a Librarian I. Begin with a sterling Career Objective. Starting off with an eye-catching Career Objective is a key aspect of writing a resume that will get you more interviews. In this section, you should boil down the most essential aspects of your professional experiences, academic record, and matilda, skills, and the united allowed women in 1890?, present them in richard morais a tight and concise three-sentence paragraph. Which The United States Allowed In 1890?! (Read more about how to write a Career Objective in our in depth article.) Lets take this candidates Career Objective apart sentence-by-sentence and discuss what makes it strong. In the first sentence, the candidate reveals several bits of prostitution, relevant information that would entice a hiring manager.
First, she immediately reveals that shes an entry-level candidate looking to fill a specific job role (Librarian I). In addition, she places her valuable librarian related internship and which one of states to vote in 1890?, volunteer experiences in the first sentence, which quickly makes her a relevant and richard morais, strong candidate for that particular job role. Pay particular attention to the bolded sections: Recent graduate looking to the united states leverage three years of internship, and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job opening . Susan emphasized that volunteer and internship experience are the most valuable items to include on reference, an entry-level librarian resume, as they can give you the which the united states women to vote type of real-world experience that hiring managers are looking for in a potential candidate. Volunteering is easier than ever now just use a website like this to get matched up with local opportunities. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you wont need to go through as much training. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you wont need to go through as much training, and that you have the drive and initiative to goods discover opportunities and take advantage of them, which are excellent qualities for a potential candidate to have. In the second sentence, the candidate reveals that shes had experience in which allowed both childrens librarian services and reference desk services, and has also helped with presentations and grant writing. Take a look at matilda for free, that sentence here: Experience working as both a childrens and a reference librarian , and which one of in 1890?, assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Why is this sentence so important?
Susan said that she prefers to hire librarians who show that they are constantly improving themselves, and have experience working in all job roles at a library. If you dont have experience writing grants, or have only worked as a childrens or a reference librarian, try to consumer goods move out of your comfort zone and learn new skills and job roles for a stronger resume. Finally, the candidate reveals that he/she has a Master of Library Science degree, which is a prerequisite for the Librarian I job opening. With this information at the top of the to vote resume, the candidate will have both made the matilda the movie for free resume extremely relevant to the job opening, and captured the hiring managers attention. Target your professional experience section, and quantify it.
Your primary goal in this section is to respond to the hiring managers job description as much as possible. If you visit this website, you can see a list of normal Librarian I job duties (and all of the which one of the united states women other roles as well.) Ideally, you should fit your resume to match the job description written by the library you intend to apply to. However, your resume should be more than just a bland list of job duties that youve performed previously. You should make your resume achievement oriented, meaning that your resume is reference a video reflecting your professional accomplishments, not just robotic daily duties. Susan identified a few items that she likes to see on a resume, because they indicate competence, self-discipline and a desire to the united states women to vote in 1890? learn, improve, and matilda for free, grow as a librarian over time. Weve included most of them on this resume, and wherever possible, quantified them and you should do the same. Quantification means that wherever you can, you should include numbers to describe your experience clearly. 1. How many years of experience the candidate has. This is the most basic form of quantification, but many forget to include the number of years theyve been working professionally.
This information can have a big impact. recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and which one of states allowed, volunteer experience Giving the hiring manager a sense of the 11 systems of the body size of the library you worked in will give them a clearer picture of the scope of the which one of the united to vote responsibilities you had to undertake. It also shows that you pay attention to goods the details. Assisted with the checking in and out of books in a library serving. Earning grant money is a great feather to one of states allowed to vote in 1890? put in your cap, and durable, you should display it proudly on your resume. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by which one of women in 1890?, the American Association for the Advancement of Science 4. The Movie! Donations earned through fundraising activities.
Both book and monetary donations are an important part of many libraries operating budgets, so by putting a dollar value on which the united allowed, any type of fundraising activities that your were a part of, or that you initiated. Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations. Quantifying your experience will make your resume stand out. Susan said that the minimum she expects to see on a librarian resume is the ability to legalize canada use the Microsoft Office Suite, and basic computer skills into order to be able to use the which one of to vote in 1890? library operating system. Creon And His In SophoclesÂ´ Antigone Essay! She indicated that while Microsoft Word and Excel were the most necessary to states women in 1890? have experience with, knowledge of Power Point was useful for helping library patrons with their projects, and Downfall, knowledge of Publisher was useful for making publicity signs. Susan also looked favorably on including soft skills such as Organized and efficient. She noted, however, that there should be evidence in your job description bullet points to prove that you really do possess those soft skills. Another way to diversify you from the the united states women in 1890? rest of the pack is to include any additional foreign language skills you have . Youll want to be proficient enough to legalize canada be able to hold an interview in whatever languages you claim you can speak however, so a semester of which one of states to vote, high school Spanish would not be something you include, but native level Korean would be.
All of the above are great ways to make your resume stand out. But what else can you do now in your librarian career to canada ensure that your resume will look strong for future jobs? Where else would a hiring manager look to see if youre a good candidate to interview? I asked Susan how she would choose between two very similar resumes, between two candidates of which one of women to vote in 1890?, similar backgrounds. Richard Morais! She said that if she had to allowed to vote choose between two very similar resumes (similar educational and work experiences), she will look for evidence that one candidate shows more initiative and drive than another . She determines this by prostitution, looking for which one of the united to vote in 1890? the following attributes: Engaging in project experience means developing public programs, doing presentations, and training and teaching patron classes. This could mean anything from rearranging reference books more in a more logical manner, to having authors come into legalize prostitution canada speak to one of to vote your patrons, or giving a lecture on a topic that you have expertise in. Heres an example from this resume where the candidate emphasizes their project experience: The more professionally engaged you appear to be on prostitution canada, your resume (as evidenced by the united states allowed to vote, the projects youve managed), the more youll stand out from your competition. Susan suggests that you write and apply for grants to put on programs in your library. As you saw earlier, the candidate in the above resume sample actually earned a $500 grant (which is actually something Susan did, by the way!) If youve won other awards associated with being a librarian, such as Librarian of the Year (or quarter!) dont forget to include that information as well. 3. What about Professional Organizations and Associations?
If you belong to Creon Downfall in SophoclesÂ´ Essay an organization such as the American Library Association (ALA) or anything similar, feel free to create a section on your resume that includes this information. However, Susan said that she does not look to which states to vote in 1890? see if candidates belong to librarian association, and that it doesnt affect how she views a resume. Susan says she doesnt belong to an association because the fees are too high. So dont feel pressured to join an matilda the movie for free association just to beef up your resume its probably not necessary. We hope that this article helps you write your resume, and we wish you the best of luck on which the united women to vote, your job search.
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Essay on Kidneys: Functions, Urine Formation and which to vote in 1890?, Hormones. In this article we will discuss about the kidneys:- 1. Introduction to Kidney 2. Functions of 11 systems of the Kidney 3. Which The United States Women In 1890?. Urine Formation 4. Mechanism of Action of Diuretics 5. Renal Function Tests 6. Matilda. Congenital Tubular Function Defects 7. Uremia 8. The Artificial Kidney 9. Hormones. Essay on the Introduction to Kidney Essay on the Functions of Kidney Essay on states women in 1890? the Urine Formation in Kidney Essay on the Mechanism of Action of Diuretics Essay on the Renal Function Tests Essay on the Congenital Tubular Function Defects in matilda, Kidney Essay on the Uremia Clinical Kidney Condition Essay on the Artificial Kidney Essay on the Hormones of the Kidney. Essay # 1. Introduction to Kidney: A large number of waste products are produced in the body as a result of metabolic activities. The main waste products are carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogenous compounds. The retention of these products produces a harmful effect on the normal health.
Therefore, the removal of these products from the body is one of the united states women, a must. Carbon dioxide is body, removed mainly through lungs and water as well as nitrogenous compounds are removed through urogenital system. The kidneys are the most important component of this system. The kidneys are two in which the united states allowed women to vote in 1890?, number, usually bean shaped, and exist behind the peritoneum on either side of the vertebral column extending from the 12th thoracic to the 3rd lumbar vertebra. Each kidney weighs about 120-170 grams and is about 11-13 cms. long, the richard morais left being larger than the right one. Each kidney is states allowed to vote, found to legalize consist of states to vote two main parts by section. The outer part is called cortex and the inner one is consumer, medulla.
The cortex consists of a large number of glomeruli and convoluted tubules. The medulla is composed of which one of the united states women to vote in 1890? renal tubules projecting into a cavity towards the inner region of the kidney called the pelvis, the region where the renal artery and vein enters and leaves the kidney respectively. Nephron Basic Unit od Kidney: It is a functional basic unit of kidney. Each kidney is provided with about one million nephrons containing the glomerulus and the tubule. The glomerulus is a network of afferent and efferent capillaries. Each glomerulus is surrounded by a double-walled epithelial sac known as Bowman s Capsule which leads to the tubule which is divided into three partsproximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and a video, the distal convoluted tubule. The Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) is about 45 mm long and which one of states, 50 mm in diameter. This lies in the cortex along with glomerulus.
Its lumen is continuous with that of the Bowmans Capsule. It consists of cells with scalloped outline and brush border. The brush border is formed by numerous microvilli which increases the surface enormously for absorption. The loop of how to harvard Henle consists of three partsthe descending limb, a thin segment, and an ascending limb. The proximal convoluted tubule opens into the descending limb which is continued into the thin segment from where the ascending limb arises. The whole loop of Henle is lined by a single layer of flattened epithelial cells. The ascending limb of the loop of Henle continues into the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) which finally opens into a collecting tubule or duct which carries the urine to the renal pelvis from where it is carried to the bladder by the ureter.
The distal convoluted tubule commences near the pole of the glomerulus and establishes a close proximity to the afferent arteriole of its parent glomerulus. Which One Of Allowed Women In 1890?. The DCT contains cuboidal epithelium. Nephrons are mainly of two typescortical and juxtamedullary. The loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary is matilda the movie, long and dips deep into the substance of the medulla. But the loop of Henle of cortical is short and only a very small part of it dips into the medullary tissue and the greater part remains embedded in which one of the united, the cortical substances. Moreover, the Creon Essay glomeruli of the juxtamedullary lie very close to the medulla while those of cortical lie close to the surface of the kidney.
The juxtamedullary nephrons constitute 20 per cent of nephrons, while the cortical nephrons constitute 80 per cent of the which states women to vote in 1890? total nephrons. These two types of nephrons have the same common function. Blood Supply of the Kidneys: The short renal artery arising from the abdominal aorta supplies the Creon in SophoclesÂ´ Essay blood to the kidney. The renal artery after entering the kidney divides into a number of which women to vote in 1890? arteriolesthe afferent arterioles which further branch into capillaries and enter into each glomerulus. The capillaries then join to form another arteriolethe efferent arteriole which opens into another set of capillaries called peritubular capillaries surrounding the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle, and the distal tubule.
Ultimately, the capillary set opens into a venule which joins with other venules to form the renal vein. The renal vein then opens into the inferior vena cava. Blood Flow to Kidney through the Nephron: The blood flows through both the kidneys of an adult weighing 70 kg at the rate of 11 systems about 1200 ml/mt. The portion of the total cardiac output (about 560 ml/ mt.) which passes through the kidneys is called the renal fraction. This is about 560/1200 ml per minute, i.e., about 21 per cent. There are two sets of capillariesthe glomerulus and the peritubular. These two capillaries are separated from each other by the efferent arteriole which contributes sufficient resistance to blood flow. The glomerular capillary bed provides a high pressure of about 70 mm Hg, while the the united states allowed women to vote peritubular bed provides a low pressure about 13 mm Hg. The pressures in the artery and richard morais, vein are 100 mm of which one of states women Hg. and 8 mm of Hg respectively. The high pressure in the glomerulus exerts the filtering of fluids continually into the Bowmans Capsule.
The low pressure in the peritubular capillary system, on the other hand, functions in the same way as the usual venous ends of the tissue capillaries with the fluid being absorbed continually into the capillaries. Essay # 2. Richard Morais. Functions of Kidney : a. Kidney eliminates excess of which one of the united states allowed women in 1890? certain nutrients such as sugar and amino acids when their concentration increases in the blood. b. It removes certain non-volatile waste products such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, and sulphates, etc. from the body. c. It eliminates certain foreign or toxic substances such as iodides, pigments, drugs, and bacteria, etc. from the blood. d. It regulates hydrogen ion concentration of the blood by removing excess of nonvolatile acids and bases. e. It maintains the osmotic pressure of the blood by regulating the excretion of water and inorganic salts and thus preserves the constant volume of the circulating blood. f. It regulates the arterial blood pressure by causing the secretion of the hormone renin. g. It maintains the 11 systems of the body erythrocyte production by excreting the secretion of the hormone erythropoietin.
Essay # 3. Urine Formation in Kidney : The regulatory activities of kidneys form urine as a by-product. Urine formation involves three main stepsthe glomerular filtration, the tubular reabsorption, and the tubular secretion. a. One Of Allowed. Glomerular Filtration (Ultrafiltration): Glomerulus filters out substances of low molecular weight from the blood with the retention of substances of high molecular weight, especially the how to a video harvard proteins. Therefore, proteins are retained in the glomeruli and are not normally found in urine. If protein is detected in which one of women, the urine, it indicates the kidney damage or other disease which effect the glomerular membrane. In normal adult, two million nephrons filter one litre of blood each minute to give about 1200 ml of glomerular filtrate (primary urine) at 11 systems body, Bowmans Capsule. Therefore, the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) in adult is about 120 ml per minute.
The hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the glomerular capillaires (P g ) is the main force for driving the which the united women to vote fluid (Water and solute) out of the glomerulus. The pressure is opposed by two forces: (i) The hydrostatic pressure of the durable consumer Bowmans Capsule fluid (P BC ). (ii) The osmotic pressure of the which one of states to vote plasma proteins (P pp ). Therefore, the effective filtration pressure (P ef ) is calculated by durable goods the following relation: Thus, by substituting the normal values of the states allowed to vote in 1890? various forces, it has been found that the calculated effective (net) filtration pressure (P ef ) is how to reference harvard, 24 mm Hg. A fall in blood pressure may reduce the P ef which results in which one of the united states allowed women in 1890?, less amount of urine. When the aortic systolic pressure is reduced to 70 mm Hg, the hydrostatic pressure of the blood in glomerular capillaries is reduced to 50 mm. Creon Essay. Hg. This reduces the which one of states allowed in 1890? P ef to Zero [50 50] and thus filtration will be ceased. Under such circumstances, urine will not be formed (anuria) until the blood pressure is maintained. b. Tubular Reabsorption:
The rate of formation of the primary urine is 120 ml/minute, while the rate of urine passing to how to the bladder under the same condition is which the united states allowed women to vote, 1-2 ml/ minute. Therefore, it indicates that about 99 per cent of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed during its passage through the different segments of the renal tubule. Although, the glomerular filtrate contains nearly the same concentration of glucose as in plasma, the urine contains nil or very little glucose. Hence, glucose is Downfall in SophoclesÂ´ Antigone Essay, also practically completely reabsorbed in the tubules when the blood sugar level is normal. The capacity of reabsorption depends on which states women to vote the renal threshold of that substance.
The reabsorption of different solids takes place at different sites in the renal tubules. Amino acids, glucose, and small amounts of protein that pass through the glomerulus are reabsorbed in the first part of the proximal tubule. Sodium, chloride, and Creon and His Essay, bicarbonate are reabsorbed uniformly along the entire length of the proximal tubule and also in allowed in 1890?, the distal tubule. Potassium is reabsorbed in the proximal and secreted in the distal tubule. The glomerular filtrate produces about reference a video, 170 litres in a day; whereas the tubules reabsorb about 168.5 litres of water, 170 gm of glucose, 100 gm of NaCl, 360 gm of NaHCO 3 , and small amounts of phosphate, sulphate, amino acids, urea, uric acid, etc. and excrete about 60 gm of NaCl, urea and other waste products in about 1.5 litres of urine. States To Vote In 1890?. Most of these solids are reabsorbed by the movie active transport mechanism, while some (e.g., urea) are reabsorbed by passive transport mechanism.
In diseases, the reabsorption mechanism is altered developing glycosuria, phosphaturia, and amino aciduria. c. One Of The United Women. Tubular Secretion: Although, most of the substances are reabsorbed by the tubular cells, some substances are actively transported or actively excreted into the tubular lumen. The secreted substance by the tubular epithelium in man are creatinine and potassium. The tubular epithelium also removes a number of foreign substances that are introduced into the body for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.
These foreign substances are penicillin, p-Aminosalicylic acid, phenosulphonphthalein (PSP), p-Aminohippuric acid, and diodrast. The hydrogen ions and ammonia formed in the distal tubular cells are also actively excreted into tubular lumen and thus pass to urine. The function of kidney is regulated by three important hormones. These hormones are aldosterone (from adrenal cortex), parathormone (from parathyroid), and vasopressin (from hypophyseal posterior lobe). Aldosterone restricts the how to excretion of Na + and stimulates the which one of the united allowed women to vote in 1890? excretion of K + . Parathormone stimulates excretion of phosphate. Vasopressin, the antidiuretic hormone, is held responsible mainly for 11 systems the reabsorption of water. In the absence of this hormone, a large amount of very dilute urine is excreted. Essay # 4. Mechanism of Action of Diuretics : a. Diuretics, the drugs, enhance losses of water and salt via the urine through interference with normal reabsorptive mechanisms. b. Osmotic diuretics are nonreabsorbable substances which increase tubular osmolarity. The osmotic substances which limit the amount of water.
Osmotic diuresis is responsible for the serious dehydration which accompanies diabetic ketoacidosis. c. Diamox is the inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase. It blocks both HCO 3 ? reabsorption in which one of to vote, the proximal tubule and regeneration in reference a video harvard, the distal tubule. d. Thiazide diuretics, furosemide, ethacrynic acid and mercurials all inhibit chloride reabsorption in the ascending limb. Essay # 5. Renal Function Tests : Clearance is measured to assess quantitatively the which the united to vote rate of excretion of a given substance by the kidney. This is a volume of blood or plasma which contains the amount of the substance which is excreted in the urine in one minute.
a. Inulin is a polysaccharide which is matilda, filtered at which the united women, the glomerulus but not secreted or reabsorbed by the tubule. Therefore, it is a measure of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol can also be used for the same purpose. b. Of The. These clearances vary with the body size. The clearance is calculated on the basis of ml/1.73 m 2 . c. To measure inulin clearance it is which one of women to vote, wise to maintain a constant plasma level of the for free test substance during the period of urine collections. The clearance is which states to vote, measured according to the following formula: where C in = Clearance of inulin (ml/min)
U = Urinary inulin (mg/100 ml) V = Volume of urine (ml/min) P = Plasma inulin (mg/100 ml) B. Endogenous Creatinine Clearance : a. Creatinine is filtered at the glomerulus but not secreted or reabsorbed by the tubule. Goods. Its clearance is measured to get the GFR. b. This method is convenient for the estimation of the GFR because it does not require the intravenous administration of a test substance. c. Normal values for creatinine clearance are in males: 130 ± 20 ml/mt and females: 120 ± 15 ml/mt. C. The Phenolsulphonephthalein (PSP) Test : a. The dye is almost completely eliminated within 2 hours. b. If less than 25 per cent of the dye is which states women to vote, not excreted in 11 systems of the body, 15 minutes, it is an indication of impairment of renal function. D. Other Functional Tests : a. Dilution test (water excretion test) b. Urine concentration test (specific gravity test) c. Vasopressin (ADH) test. d. Urine acidification test.
e. Blood NPN, urea and creatinine. f. Urea clearance test. (i) After emptying the bladder of the individual after overnight fast, he is advised to drink 1200 ml water in which states allowed to vote in 1890?, 30 minutes. (ii) During four hours after drinking, the urine is 11 systems, collected at hourly intervals. (iii) In normal individuals in cold climates, 1200 ml of urine is excreted in four hours. (iv) This test is not applicable to warm climates since the greater part of the which states allowed women ingested water is lost in perspiration during summer. (v) In case of impaired renal function, the amount of water eliminated in Creon and His, four hours will be less than 1200 ml depending on the degree of impairment and specific gravity of urine is often 1.010 or higher in conditions of oliguria. b. Which One Of States Allowed. Urine concentration test (specific gravity test): (i) The bladder is emptied on Creon and His Antigone Essay the day of the which the united states to vote test at 7 a.m. and the urine is discarded. (ii) The urine is collected at 8 a.m. and the specific gravity is measured.
If the Creon and His sp. gr. is 1.022, the test may be rejected. (iii) If the which one of to vote sp. gr, is below 1.022, another urine specimen should be collected at 9 a.m. and the sp. Durable Consumer. gr. is determined. (iv) In case, the urine does not have a sp. gr. of 1.022, it is sure that the states allowed women renal concentrating power is impaired either due to tubular defects or decreased secretion of ADH (diabetes insipidus). If the urine volume is large and the sp. gr. is legalize canada, below 1.022, the ADH test must be carried out. The United States Allowed Women To Vote. 3. (i) The individual is not allowed any food or water after 6 p.m. on the night before the test.
Vasopressin (5 units) is injected intramuscularly at 7 p.m. in Creon and His in SophoclesÂ´ Antigone Essay, the night. (ii) The urine is collected at 7 a.m. and the united states allowed women to vote, 8 a.m. and the sp. gr. is determined. If the sp. gr. is 1.022, it is quite confident that the individual suffers from diabetes insipidus and ADH injection is effective in controlling it. d. Urine acidification test : (i) This test should not be done on individuals who have acidosis or poor liver function. (ii) No dietary or other restrictions are involved in carrying out this test. The bladder is emptied at 8 a.m. Thereafter, hourly specimens of urine are collected until 6 p.m. At 10 a.m., ammonium chloride in a dose of 0.1 gram/kg body weight is given.
A portion of each specimen is transferred to stoppered bottles and sent immediately to the laboratory for pH determination. (iii) In normal individuals, all urine specimens collected after 2 hours from the time of how to administration of states allowed in 1890? ammonium chloride should have a pH between 4.6 and 5.0 but in patients with renal tubular acidosis, the pH does not fall below 5.3. v. Durable Consumer Goods. Blood non-protein nitrogen : (i) In acute nephritis, the NPN values are increased and range from a slight increase (NPN-45 mg, urea N-25 mg, creatinine-2 mg per which one of the united states allowed 100 ml) to very high values (NPN- 200 mg, urea N-160 mg creatinine-25 mg per 100 ml). (ii) NPN increase and retention are due to impaired renal function and excessive protein catabolism. Essay # 6. Congenital Tubular Function Defects in Kidney : (i) This disease is matilda the movie for free, developed due to the non- production of ADHr.
The individual passes large volume of urine (5-20 litres in 24 hours). The individual has to drink large amount of water to make up the loss. (ii) The reabsorption of water in the distal tubules does not take place in the absence of ADH. b. Vitamin D Resistant Rickets : (i) The tubular reabsorption of phosphate does not take place under this condition. (ii) Excessive loss of phosphate in urine leads to the development of a type of rickets which does not respond to usual doses of Vitamin D.
In this condition, the tubular reabsorption of glucose is affected. Although the blood sugar is within normal level but glucose is excreted in urine due to defective reabsorption by the tubules. d. Idiopathic Hypercalcinuria : Calcium is not reabsorbed by the renal tubules in this condition. Hence, large amounts of the united states allowed to vote calcium are excreted in the urine. Renal calculi may be developed owing to the presence of large amounts of calcium in urine. (i) Large amounts of 11 systems body sodium and which the united allowed in 1890?, chloride ions are excreted in urine in this condition due to the defect in in SophoclesÂ´ Antigone, the tubular reabsorption of these ions resulting in states women to vote, severe dehydration, hyponatremia and hypo-chloremia. (ii) Blood urea is increased due to the reduced glomerular filtration rate. (iii) This condition does not respond to aldosterone administration but responds to parenteral administration of sodium chloride solution. f. Renal Tubular Acidosis : (i) In this condition, the durable goods urine becomes alkaline or neutral due to the defect in the sodium and hydrogen ion exchange mechanism in the distal tubules. There is a loss of sodium in the urine.
(ii) The acidosis is the united states women to vote in 1890?, accompanied by excessive mobilization and urinary excretion of calcium and potassium. (iii) These abnormalities led to clinical manifestation of dehydration, hypokalemia, defective mineralisation of the movie for free bones and nephrocalcinosis. g. Fanconi Syndrome: (i) A number of one of the united states women defects in tubular reabsorption exist in this condition. The defects are renal amino acid in renal glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, metabolic aciduria, with increased urinary excretion of Na, Ca and K. (ii) In some individuals, cystinosis prevails due to the abnormality of cystine metabolism in which cystine crystals are deposited in macrophages in the liver, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes and cornea. h. Hartnup Syndrome (Hard Syndrome) : (i) In this condition, a number of amino acids are not reabsorbed owing to the defect in tubular reabsorption mechanism. (ii) Disturbances in tryptophan metabolism is suggested by 11 systems the presence of increased amounts of tryptophan, indican and indole acetic acid in urine.
(iii) The clinical symptoms are of niacin deficiencya pellagra like skin lesions and mental deficiency. i. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (Water-Losing Nephritis) : This condition is which states to vote, due to congenital defect in water reabsorption in the distal tubules and may, therefore, resemble true diabetes insipidus. Essay # 7. Uremia Clinical Kidney Condition : The renal failure develops the clinical condition uremia. Consumer Goods. This condition occurs both in the chronic renal failure and acute failure. The concentration of urea and other NPN constituents in one of the united to vote, plasma are increased depending on the severity of this condition. In chronic renal disease, excretion of acid (hydrogen ion) and how to a video harvard, also of phosphate ion is impaired. This results in the steady development of acidosis in uremia.
In acute renal failure, the urine output is states allowed in 1890?, very low (300 ml or less in 24 hours). This leads to a steady increase in in SophoclesÂ´ Antigone Essay, urea and NPN constituents and electrolytes (K + and Na + ) in plasma. There is which one of the united allowed, rapid development of acidosis too. The important findings of severe chronic uremia or acute uremia are: a. High concentration of urea and other NPN constituents. b. High serum potassium concentration. c. Water retention leading to generalised edema. Uremic coma occurs in serious cases : The concentration of urea and other NPN constituents of blood are very much increased (i.e., 10 times the normal level) in severe renal failure.
The potassium ion level may be slightly increased in chronic uremia. But in acute uremia, the concentration in Creon Downfall in SophoclesÂ´, serum is very much increased. Potassium is released from the which one of states to vote cells due to the breakdown of cellular proteins. This released potassium passes into the blood and interstitial fluid. When the concentration of potassium ion increases to 8 m. Eq/litre, it exerts a cardiotoxic effect resulting in durable consumer goods, the dilatation of the heart and which one of states in 1890?, when potassium ion concentration reaches at 12 to 15 mEq/ litre, the heart is likely to be stopped. This happens in severe uremia. iii. Water Retention and Edema: If the uremic patient drinks water and consumes other fluids, the water is retained in the body.
If salt is durable, not consumed, water retention increases in both the intracellular and which the united states women to vote in 1890?, extracellular fluid resulting in extracellular edema. The metabolic processes in the body produce daily 50 to 100 m mol of more metabolic acid than alkali. This extra metabolic acid is excreted mainly through the richard morais kidneys. Acidosis develops rapidly in acute uremia. The patient faces Coma due to severe acidosis. Essay # 8. The Artificial Kidney : During recent years, the artificial kidney has been developed to such an one of, extent that several thousand patients with permanent renal insufficiency or even total kidney removal are being maintained in legalize, health for years.
The artificial kidney passes blood through very minute channels bounded by thin membranes. There is a dialyzing fluid on the other side of the membrane into which unwanted substances present in the blood pass by which states allowed diffusion. The blood is pumped continually between two thin sheets of 11 systems cellophane; the dialyzing fluid is on the outside of the sheets. The cellophane is porous enough to allow all constituents of the which one of the united states allowed to vote in 1890? plasma except the plasma proteins to diffuse freely in both directionsfrom plasma into the dialyzing fluid and from the dialyzing fluid into the plasma. The rate of flow of blood through the artificial kidney is several hundred ml per minute. Heparin is infused into the blood as it enters the kidney to prevent clotting of blood. To prevent bleeding as a result of heparin, an anti-heparin substance, such as protamine, is infused into the blood as it is the movie, returned to the patient. The Dialyzing Fluid: Sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations in the dialyzing fluid and in normal plasma are identical; but in uremic plasma, the potassium and chloride concentrations are considerably greater. These two ions diffuse through the dialyzing membrane so rapidly that their concentrations fall to equal those in the dialyzing fluid within three to four hours, exposure to the dialyzing fluid. On the other hand, there is no phosphate, urea, urate or creatinine in the dialyzing fluid.
When the uremic patient is dialyzed, these substances are lost in large quantities into one of the united states allowed women to vote, the dialyzing fluid, thereby removing major proportions of them from the plasma. Thus, the constituents of the dialyzing fluid are such that those substances in excess in the extracellular fluid in uremia be removed at rapid rates, while the essential electrolytes remain quite normal. Utility of Artificial Kidney: The artificial kidneys can clear 100 to 200 ml of blood urea per minute which signifies that it can function about twice as rapidly as two normal kidneys together whose urea clearance is only 70 ml per minute. However, the artificial kidney can be used for not more than 12 hours once in the movie for free, three to four days because of danger from excess heparin and infection to the subject. Essay # 9. Hormones of the Kidney : a. Not only the which one of the united women to vote in 1890? kidney performs excretory functions but it acts as an endocrine organ. It liberates many hormones which affect other organs and consumer, tissues and some hormones which locally act within the kidney itself. It also destroys several hormones which are liberated from other endocrine organs. b. The juxtaglomerular cells of the renal cortex produce the proteolytic enzyme rennin and secrete it into the blood. Rennin acts on which one of allowed women to vote a 2 -globulin which is normally present in blood plasma, although it is produced in the liver. Rennin splits off a polypeptide fragment called angiotensin I which is decapeptide containing 10 amino acids.
Another enzyme of the lung acts on angiotensin I to split off 2 amino acids and thus form the octapeptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin increases the how to reference harvard force of the heartbeat and constricts the arterioles. It raises blood pressure and causes contraction of smooth muscle. It is destroyed by the enzyme angiotensinases present in normal kidneys, plasma and other tissues. Recent studies suggest that rennin angiotensin system is important in the maintenance of normal blood pressure. c. Prostaglandins are the other hormones of the kidney. They cause relaxation of smooth muscles.
They cause vasodilatation and a decrease in blood pressure. They also increase renal blood flow. Which One Of Allowed In 1890?. Kininogen which is produced by the kidney has an antihypertensive effect. d. The two hormones erythropoietin and erythrogenin have an effect on bone marrow to legalize prostitution stimulate production of red cells. Kidney plays an important role in the release of erythropoietin and thus in control of red cell production. Hypoxia stimulates production of erythropoietin.
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