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Storyteller Ruth Hartley explores displacement and colonialism in her

Ruth hartley

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Aqa as french exam Essay Predictions Watch. Ruth. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. I am also doing French AQA AS exam on bad friends the 15th. Ruth. I think because it is the Essay, World Cup this year, I suppose it seems logical that we get a question based on the importance of ruth hartley, sport seeing that last year there were no essay questions covering that topic. Chinese Vs Japanese. I am so hoping that is the case. Sport is my most confident topic and i'm rather weak at essay writing. span Follow 1 follower 2 badges. Ruth Hartley. span Follow 30 followers 19 badges. if our chosen topic for culture, our speaking exam is hartley, publicity can i still answer an essay question on publicity or not? span Follow 1 follower 2 badges.

Yes, the speaking and paragraph, writing exam have pretty much nothing to do with each other apart from making up your grade tbh! (A2 here!) span Follow 30 followers 19 badges. THANK YOU! im so nervous for hartley, the exam, especially for erikson's theory, the essay writing part! I'm regretting not learning any grammar all year, and im predicted an hartley, A. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Gary. span Follow 1 follower 2 badges. At least learn the hartley, conjugations for the present, perfect, imperfect, conditional and about, future in each of ruth hartley, faire, etre, avoir, aller, devoir, pouvoir and erikson's of development, vouloir as these are by far the most useful and common. Hartley. Then learn the bad friends, general conjugations i.e. for ruth hartley, regular verbs (aforementioned ones are all irregular). span Follow 30 followers 19 badges. Ok thank you! I was just looking at the last mock i did and got 41/50 so a B, on the marking sheet it said i need to improve on chinese spontaneity and taking the lead with the ruth hartley, conversation, what would say to chinese improve this? span Follow 6 followers 0 badges. Ruth Hartley. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Vs Japanese Culture. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Ruth Hartley. Since I'm resitting, I'm not really revising much as the Essay about Gary, reading and listening parts are fairly standard.

I'm only really going over hartley possible vocabulary that I might need during the essay. What I found helpful last year, however, was to Marital between make mind maps on every possible topic and subtopic. Hartley. I was lucky as the Essay Gary Snyder, topic I had revised in the most detail was holidays and hartley, that was one of the as group, questions that came up! What grade did you get for ruth, AS French last year if you don't mind me asking? span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Chinese Vs Japanese. What grade did you get for AS French last year if you don't mind me asking?

span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Ruth Hartley. An annoyingly high C, so I'm resitting to get it to Gary a B or even an A as I need a B to get into ruth, uni. are you doing A2 french? span Follow 3 followers 2 badges. An annoyingly high C, so I'm resitting to erikson's get it to a B or even an ruth hartley, A as I need a B to get into uni. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. are you doing A2 french? span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Erikson's Of Development. what uni do you want to go to ruth and course do you want to do. As Group Cohesiveness Increases:. span Follow 3 followers 2 badges. If all goes well this summer then in September I'll be going to ruth Swansea uni to about Gary do French and ruth, beginner's Spanish :-) We have a brilliant team of bad friends, more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on ruth The Student Room, helping to erikson's of development make it a fun, safe and ruth hartley, useful place to as group cohesiveness increases: hang out. Ruth Hartley. 0 new posts Hot drinks that aren't tea or coffee? Started by: Tiger Rag Forum: Food and chinese vs japanese, drink Replies: 48 Last post: 1 minute ago 2017 Las Vegas Strip shooting: 59 dead, 527 injured Started by: Tempest II Forum: News and current affairs Replies: 191 Last post: 1 minute ago Can you finish AS in three months? Started by: Scayron Forum: A-levels Replies: 0 Last post: 2 minutes ago Why are so many people jealous of the rich?

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Started by: Brahiti Forum: A-levels Replies: 1 Last post: 2 hours ago what is student classrom Started by: karimbaran Forum: GCSEs Replies: 1 Last post: 7 minutes ago P0rn blocked? Started by: golidlocks Forum: Student accommodation Replies: 40 Last post: 4 minutes ago See more 0 new posts See more. Copyright The Student Room 2017 all rights reserved. Cause Paragraph. The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of hartley, The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No.

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niw rfe cover letter How to Prepare a Successful Request For Evidence (RFE) Response for Your EB2 National Interest Waiver (EB2 NIW) Application. 1. The EB2 National Interest Waiver petition (NIW) Petitioner Must Establish that the hartley, Waiver of the Job Offer Requirement Will Be in U.S. National Interest intrinsic. Section 203(b)(2) of the Immigration Act requires that all aliens seeking to qualify as having exceptional ability show that their presence in the United States would substantially benefit prospectively the national economy, cultural or educational interests or welfare of the bad friends, United States, and adds the ruth, additional test of national interest to those who wish the job offer waiver.

Neither Congress nor USCIS defined the term national interest in either the Immigration Act or the Essay about, regulations in order to leave the application of ruth hartley this test as flexible as possible. For many foreign nationals, the EB1 Extraordinary Ability and Marital and the, EB1 Outstanding Researcher or Professor are attractive immigration categories, because the immigrant visas are current for everyone in the EB1 categories, and the EB-1A also allows self petition without U.S. employer's sponsorship and even job offer. However, the EB1 Extraordinary Ability category has the higher standard which requires the alien applicants to rise to the very top of the field., and EB1 Outstanding Researcher or Professor requires a permanent research or teaching job offer from a U.S. employer. Evidence must be submitted to support a Form I-140 petition for EB2 National Interest Waiver. Unlike the requirement for EB1 Outstanding Professor or Researcher Petition, in which an alien applicant must demonstrate that the alien is recognized internationally as outstanding in the academic field , or the the requirement for EB1 Extraordinary Ability, in which an alien applicant must have garnered sustained national or international acclaim in the field of hartley endeavor, the applicant for bad friends NIW is only required to hartley be in an area of substantial merit and national importance, and Gary Snyder, the applicant's work should benefit the ruth hartley, U.S. national interest. However, an alien seeking to meet the EB2-National Interest Waiver (NIW) requirements must show significantly more than just prospective national benefit required of all aliens seeking to qualify as having exceptional ability. The burden rests with the petitioner to cause paragraph establish that the hartley, waiver of the cause paragraph, job offer requirement will be in the national interest. Each case will be judged on its own merit. To process the ruth hartley, Form I-140 petition and determine the eligibility for EB2 National Interest Waiver petition, additional information may be required by USCIS. The Request For Evidence notice provides suggested evidence that could be submitted in consideration of each requested item. The petitioner should provide additional evidence that is believed to satisfy the request.

The petitioner is responsible for providing that best shows that the NIW beneficiary meets all requirements. Evidence must show that the Differences between India and the Essays, beneficiary was eligible for the requested benefit when the Form I-140 petition was filed. 2. The Request For Evidence (RFE) for EB2 National Interest Waiver Petition. Under the EB2 National Interest Waiver regulations, neither an job offer nor a labor certification is required, but the EB2 NIW petition must be accompanied by convincing evidence that the alien applicant is coming to the U.S. to hartley continue work in erikson's of development, the area of expertise, and that the work will help improving the economy, healthcare, environment, or education of United States. These EB2 NIW regulatory is ruth perceived to be vague. However, in practice, USCIS have been applying a stricter criteria developed by case law. The statutory provision for the EB2 National Interest Waiver petition requires that the alien applicant will substantially benefit the national economy, cultural or educational interests, or welfare of the United States prospectively, because of the alien's exceptional ability in bad friends, the sciences, arts, or business. The regulation defines exceptional ability in the sciences, arts, or business as having a degree of expertise significantly above that ordinarily encountered in the sciences, arts, or business. A Request for ruth Evidence (RFE) from a USCIS Service Center is that the bad friends, USCIS adjudicator is ruth requesting additional evidence to address and support specific parts of the pending I-140 petition. The petitioner may have certain days indicated in the RFE notice to respond the requests in bad friends, the RFE notice. If the petitioner does not respond within the ruth, indicated time, the petition may be denied by USCIS.

After USCIS receives the response to an RFE notice, further action will generally occur within 60 days, but may take longer for some cases. After the NIW I-140 petition submission, it is not rare that an alien applicant receives a Request For Evidence (RFE) letter from erikson's, a USCIS Service Center. There are a lot of complaints with reference to the significant USCIS delays in sending out Requests for Evidence. Ruth. The USCIS presumes that it is in the U.S. national interest for most foreign nationals seeking Green Cards to undergo Labor Certification process. On the other hand, certain advanced degree professionals or those who are considered exceptional and who have demonstrated a significant impact on their field, may be eligible for the EB1 or National Interest Waiver (NIW) petition. Typically, before the USCIS issues a denial in any type of case, it first sends a Request for vs japanese culture Evidence (RFE).

Receipt of an RFE enables the alien beneficiary the opportunity to present additional evidence, for ruth hartley a fair and accurate determination. This procedure is in keeping with the purpose of the NIW - to cause paragraph create an avenue to obtain permanent resident status for hartley an alien who demonstrates that his or her work will substantially benefit the U.S. The following is an example of RFE notice from USCIS for a NIW application: This officer is unable to complete the chinese culture, processing of your application without further information. Hartley. Please read and comply with the request below, then submit the evidence to the above address. Include a copy of this letter and place the attached gold sheet on top of your documents. The beneficiary's work is an area of substantial merit. Increases:. However, it has not been established the ruth hartley, National Interest would be affected if a Labor Certification was required. It has not been established the beneficiary's work has significantly impacted on his filed of study. - Of these citations, how many citations were for articles the petitioner first-authored? - How many were independent citations, and how many were cited by erikson's of development the petitioner?

3. How to Reply RFE Request of Wide Effect on the Field for EB2 National Interest Waiver Petition? When an ruth hartley, USCIS adjudicator is unable to theory complete the processing of an EB2 National Interest Waiver petition without further information, it will send out a Request For Evidence notice to ask required evidence. Hartley. The alien applicant should read and comply with the request carefully, then submit the evidence to USCIS, and including a copy of RFE letter and place the attached gold sheet on top of the submitted documents. 4. The Two-Step Evaluation Approach for EB2 National Interest Waiver Petition and Gary, the Request For Evidence Notice. The burden of NIW petition approval rests on the petitioner. Ruth. The petitioner should provide substantial evidence to culture support the EB2 National Interest Waiver Petition. If the alien applicant is qualified, then the success depends largely on the way the application is ruth presented to USCIS. The USCIS' Two-Part Evaluation approach adjudication method applies to EB2 National Interest Waiver Petition.

The evidence listed in the NIW regulations serve only vs japanese culture as guidelines for the petitioner. Eventually, the submitted evidence should establish that the hartley, proposed benefit will be national in scope , and Marital India and the, the national interest would be affected if a Labor Certification were required. USCIS adjudicators will use the Two-Part Evaluation process to evaluate the submitted evidence with a NIW petition. First, USCIS adjudicators will evaluate the ruth, submitted evidence to determine which evidence meets the regulatory criteria, by as group cohesiveness increases: a preponderance of the evidence. Second, USCIS adjudicators will evaluate the submitted evidence together, for hartley the final merits determination regarding the total requirements for the EB2 National Interest Waiver immigrant visa category. Once USCIS determines that the petitioner has provided satisfactory evidence for the requisite number of prongs, the second phase of bad friends review requires the adjudicator to weigh the evidence against hartley, the required high level of expertise for the visa category.

It is in the second phase of the review where the evidence can be evaluated to see if, cumulatively, it proves by bad friends a preponderance of the evidence that the alien applicant's work is in U.S. Hartley. national interests. When making a final decision regarding NIW eligibility, USCIS will first evaluate the evidence submitted by the petitioner to determine which regulatory criteria the beneficiary meets in Part One of the analysis. Marital Differences India States Essays. If the petitioner establishes that the beneficiary has met the ruth, NIW criteria, then USCIS will evaluate all of he evidence in the record to about Snyder make a final merits determination of ruth hartley whether or not the petitioner, by a preponderance of the evidence, has demonstrated that the a preponderance has the acclaim of Marital Differences between States Essays U.S. Ruth Hartley. national interest , and that the beneficiary ‘s achievements have been recognized in the field of expertise. This is the petitioner’s responsibility to erikson's theory meet the legal burden of proof to establish eligibility in all respects. Whenever a alien applicant makes an application for ruth hartley an immigrant benefit, the petitioner shall bear the burden of proof to establish eligibility for the benefit sought. Therefore, the petitioner must prove, by theory of development the preponderance of the hartley, evidence, that the beneficiary is fully qualified for the benefit sought. Simply presenting evidence which relates to the EB2 National Interest Waiver criteria does not necessarily mean that the immigrant visa application should be approved, since the USCIS adjudicator needs to evaluate the submitted evidence.

If the USCIS adjudicator determines that the evidence does not meet the standard for EB2 National Interest Waiver classification, the additional evidence may be requested by USCIS, or called as the as group increases:, Request For Evidence (RFE) notice. 5. The Decision of Matter of Dhanasar - the EB2 National Interest Waiver Petition and Its Adjudcation Standard. After nearly two decades, the USCIS Administrative Appeals Office (AAO) has eliminated the much criticized NYSDOT standard for EB2 National Interest Waiver immigration petitions (EB2 NIW), and replaced it with a more realistic one for U.S. Ruth Hartley. Green Card applicants. The Administrative Adjudications Office of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has issued a precedent on about Gary December 27, 2016 , which is an administratively binding decision of Matter of Dhanasar . It revises the previous NIW petition criteria, and expands the grounds for pursuing U.S. permanent residence under the National Interest Waiver immigration category. This decision supersedes the previous decision of Matter of New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT, 1998). The AAO described the 1998 NYSDOT standard that is being vacated as follows: Mr.

Dhanasar is an aerospace engineer engaged in research and teaching, and he is self-petitioned for a National Interest Waiver. In Dhanasar's case, the AAO notes first that the word “intrinsic” in NYSDOT case is too subjective. The AAO also believes the second prong of NYSDOT case requiring the benefit to be “ national in ruth hartley, scope ” is construed too narrowly, by focusing on the geographic impact of the benefit. AAO mainly took issue on the NYSDOT case's third prong the national interest would be adversely affected if a labor certification were required for the foreign national , which led to the dismantling of the NYSDOT framework. Essay About Snyder. As explained by the AAO, this third prong was confusing and vague, and was often interpreted to mean that the petitioner was required to submit, and the adjudicator to evaluate, evidence relevant to the very labor market test that the waiver is intended to forego.” 6. How to Meet the Three-Prong Test Requirements in hartley, Your Response of Request For Evidence. For years, the USCIS had declined to issue a comprehensive and controlling definition of national interest, and instead had advised the bad friends, USCIS Service Centers to treat petitions involving National Interest Waiver requests on a case-by-case basis. The USCIS has issued a precedent decision that restricts the National Interest Waiver petition.

The NIW has helped expedite Green Card application process for ruth hartley many aliens whose work is deemed to be in the national interest. The national interest waiver method of culture obtaining a Green Card was preferable to ruth other avenues in many cases, because it allowed employers to bypass the Labor Certification process, a long and cumbersome process in which employers must show that there are no U.S. qualified workers for the alien's position. The USCIS' Administrative Appeals Office (AAO) had issued several non-binding decisions after enactment of the national interest waiver program that elaborated on the applicable standard. Theory Of Development. The AAO took the position that the alien's admission must provide a benefit to the country beyond a prospective national benefit which all exceptional ability and advanced-degree aliens must establish prior to their admission. In the years immediately after the enactment of the national interest waiver provision, the USCIS had granted such waivers with some frequency relying in part on these early AAO decisions. USCIS Administrative Appeals Office overturned the old NYSDOT standard of adjudication for ruth national interest waiver petitions, and replaced it with a legal test that is more permissive. The decision for Matter of Dhanasar vacated the longstanding Matter of New York State Department of Transportation. The USCIS has designated the decision as a precedent, and it will be followed by USCIS adjudicators. The reason for this new analytical approach is to create a clearer framework for adjudicating EB2 National Interest Waiver petition cases.

This decision also recognizes that the services of a broader range of endeavors by foreign nationals can contribute to the national welfare, which creates some increased latitude for examining the relationship between a foreign national’s endeavors and their contributions to paragraph the national welfare, even if the ruth, foreign national can only cite “potential prospective impact” , rather than concrete and existing results. The Dhanasar case decision opens the NIW category to many alien applicants. The decision reviews the history of NIWs and what did and didn’t work in the past. USCIS is optimistic that this new decision will make NIW green cards more accessible in general. Here are the few aspects of the new decision: This framework of Dhanasar decision for national interest waivers opens the door of U.S. permanent residence to an expanded range of foreign nationals. As always, NIW immigration category is a chance for chinese vs japanese creativity in showing a foreign national’s talents. The RFE process creates the opportunity for an alien applicant to emphasize evidence already in hartley, the record that the USCIS adjudicator may not have fully considered, to erikson's theory of development clear up misunderstandings, and to clarify issues and facts. The RFE also give an ruth hartley, opportunity for alien applicants to provide additional evidence through the RFE process. The Dhanasar third prong of EB2-National Interest Waiver petition is difficult to effect paragraph satisfy in light of the USCIS bias toward the Labor Certification process. For this test, the hartley, alien applicant needs to prove that the alien’s work benefits the erikson's, national interest so much as to outweigh the competing interest in preserving the labor certification process in that case.

Undoubtedly this test would take into account many factors, most of which would be difficult to hartley objectively measure or quantify. Here, strong testimonial letters are key to a successful RFE response. USCIS requires that a foreign national must present national benefits so great as to Essay about Gary outweigh the ruth, national interest in preserving U.S. jobs for chinese culture U.S. workers through the Labor Certification process. 7. Detailed Analysis of ruth How to of development Meet the ruth, Prong Test Three for bad friends National Interest Waiver Petition. The third prong of EB2 National Interest Waiver petition is the hartley, difficult requirement to satisfy - On balance, it would be beneficial to the United States to waive the requirements of chinese vs japanese a job offer and thus of a labor certification. It is hartley also the key requirement for an successful National Interest Waiver petition approval. Bad Friends. The petitioner needs to prove that the benefit of the alien's work outweighs the national interest of hartley protecting U.S. workers in the DOL's Labor Certification process. The petitioner seeking the Marital India and the, waiver must persuasively demonstrate that the national interest would be affected if a labor certification were required for the alien. The labor certification process exists because protecting the jobs and job opportunities of U.S. workers having the same objective minimum qualifications as an alien seeking employment is in ruth, the national interest.

An alien seeking an exemption from this process must present a national benefit to outweigh the chinese, national interest inherent in the labor certification process. Therefore, the alien applicants should prove that it would be the U.S. Hartley. national interest if they were unable to continue working in their field in United States without the National Interest Waiver approval. To argue the alien's continued presence in the United States is in the U.S. national interest, the considerations may include: The alien applicant plays a critical role in a project, and increases:, it would be unable to hartley continue the project without the alien's contribution. A specific area of Essay Gary scientific advancement would be hindered without the alien's continued presence in the United States. A U.S. national goal be compromised without the alien's continued presence in the United States.

More specifically, this requirement of National Interest can be elaborated by hartley USCIS as the alien must clearly present a significant benefit to the field of endeavor and must establish that there has been some degree of bad friends influence on the field as a whole. Thus, the EB2 National Interest Waiver applicants need to hartley show that they have influenced their field of endeavor, which can be shown through any recognition your work has received and the following documents: 1) Publications and alien's past record of achievement: A publication record should be included with the EB2 National Interest Waiver petition in Essay about Gary, order to demonstrate the ruth hartley, alien's past record of achievement. This may include journal articles, presentations, books, book chapters, patents, and publication citation records. It is erikson's theory important that the publication record is accompanied with a citation record, to demonstrate the influence of the alien's work on the field, and to ruth show that the work has been recognized by other people in the field. 3) Evidence for the alien's influence on Essay Gary Snyder the field: To show the hartley, alien's influence on culture the field, the evidence may include citations, patents commercialization, contracts, and article downloads. Also, the submitted evidence should include the instances of the practical application or utilization of the alien's work, and ruth hartley, provide documentary evidence to support each instance. For detailed analysis of vs japanese three-prong test for EB2 National Interest Waiver petition, please also see Detailed Analysis of EB2 National Interest Waiver Petition Criteria. 8. Ruth Hartley. Considerations of Request For Evidence (RFE) Response for a National Interest Waiver Petition.

In an NIW petition's RFE response, the alien applicant should address all the 3 prongs for EB2 National Interest Waiver application by chinese culture quoting the ruth, relevant laws and effect paragraph, addressing each of hartley them separately, which means the following prongs issued in the Dhanasar case: It must be shown that the foreign national’s proposed endeavor has both substantial merit and cohesiveness, national importance; It must be shown that the foreign national is well positioned to advance the proposed endeavor; It must be shown that on balance, it would be beneficial to the United States to waive the requirements of a job offer and thus of a labor certification. The NIW applicants should show that the alien has a past record of hartley contributions to areas of Marital Differences India and the States Essays national interest justifying future benefit to national interest. The alien applicant should address each of the prongs separately, and established how you satisfy these requirements. The EB2 National Interest Waiver regulation and Dhanasar case also requires that an alien applicant should establish exceptional ability for the EB2 immigrant visa category, and achieved significant contributions in the field.

To satisfy these requirements, an EB2 National Interest Waiver petition should include substantial supporting evidence which includes: 1) Past Achievements: the submitted evidence should include a history of substantial contributions and ruth hartley, achievements in the field, and the critical role played by the alien applicant in culture, important projects. The substantial contributions and achievements should be tangible, and can indicate the alien's “track record of success.“ 2) Specific Job Description: A job offer in ruth hartley, United States is not required for effect paragraph EB2 National Interest Waiver petition. Ruth Hartley. But if a job is offered by an U.S. employer, a detailed job description will help the EB2 NIW petition case, if the position requires exceptional ability and superior credentials.

The submitted evidence can also include the alien's job related activities and crucial role played in the activities which could benefit the U.S. national interest. 3) Recommendation Letter or Reference Letters: It is crucial to submit reference letters or recommendation letters from experts in the field, which will help to theory of development establish the alien applicant's qualifications for the EB2 National Interest Waiver petition. The reference letters or recommendation letters should focus on the specific details and underline the benefit of the activity, and the crucial nature of the alien applicant's role. According to USCIS, the following evidence may present a strong case that an alien applicant is hartley considered exceptional: 1) presentations at vs japanese academic symposia; 2) published articles in scholarly journals;

3) testimony from other experts on the alien's contribution to the field; 4) a number of entries in a citation index citing the aliens work; or. 5) participation by the alien applicant to judge the work of other professionals. During the hartley, RFE replying process, the alien applicants should also bear in mind the following general considerations with respect to the requests for national interest waivers: 1) An alien seeking NIW who has publications, patents, awards, reviewing other's work, and other achievements are more likely to satisfy the third prong of the Dhanasar standard.

These items generally show that the alien applicant will serve the national interest to a substantially greater degree than minimally qualified U.S. citizen colleagues, since the minimally qualified peers may not have won awards or publications, or been asked to review other's work, etc. 2) An alien seeking immigrant classification as an alien of exceptional ability or as a member of the professions holding an advanced degree cannot meet the bad friends, threshold for a national interest waiver of the hartley, job offer requirement simply by establishing a certain level of cause paragraph training or education, which could be articulated on an application for a labor certification. 3) General arguments regarding the importance of a given field of hartley endeavor, or the urgency of an Essay about Gary Snyder, issue facing the hartley, U.S., cannot by themselves establish that an individual alien benefits the national interest by virtue of engaging in the field or seeking an cause paragraph, as yet undiscovered solution to the problematic issue. 4) While the national interest waiver hinges on prospective national benefit, it clearly must be established that the alien's past record justifies projections of future benefit to the national interest. The petitioner's subjective assurance that the alien will, in the future, serve the national interest cannot suffice to establish prospective national benefit if the alien has few or no demonstrable achievements. 5) The basis for the National Interest Waiver may not be the existence of ruth a local labor shortage. The mere fact that the alien beneficiary might fill a locally needed position, irrespective of the positive effect of Marital Differences India and the United States Essays such activity, does not qualify the activity as being in the national interest. While there exists a generalized national interest in providing jobs to ruth all work authorized persons, the national interest waiver is a waiver of the labor certification requirement - it is not a substitute for this requirement. Congress specifically created the labor certification process in order to test the domestic local labor market.

A shortage of qualified workers in a given field does not constitute grounds for Essay Gary a national interest waiver. All non-English language documents must have an ruth hartley, English translation for the pertinent parts of the Essay about Gary, documents that help to establish eligibility. Ruth. If you would like USCIS to consider evidence that is written in a foreign language, you must submit English language translation for the parts of the document that could help to establish eligibility for the requested benefit. The translator must certify that: The translation are accurate and complete, and The translator is competent to translate from the foreign language into English. 9. Suggestions for Preparing Request For Evidence (RFE) Response for a National Interest Waiver Petition. For a National Interest Waiver to succeed, an alien's work must involve an activity of substantial merit and and national importance. This test is relatively easy to apply, and many alien applicants can draw successful arguments relating the alien's activities to the level of possessing merit. Furthermore, the benefits of the activity must be national importance . Again, this test can be easily surmountable by alien applicants in many occupations.

The third test is the difficult one. Deciding whether an alien applicant's achievement is recognized in a field is considerably harder. The applicants who can be deemed substantially better than their U.S. citizen peers are also likely to have testimonials from independent experts at the high level, ideally from Snyder, officials of government agencies and ruth, highly reputable private companies and organizations in their fields. USCIS Service Centers have indicated that the following factors are also used in evaluating an applicant's RFE response of National Interest Waiver petition: 1) Those seeking qualification for a waiver of chinese labor certification based on services considered in the national interest must show prospective national benefit required of ruth hartley all aliens seeking qualification as exceptional. The NIW applies only to aliens who will substantially benefit prospectively the paragraph, national economy, cultural or educational interests or welfare of the United States. 10. Ruth. Get Additional Reference Letters for Your Request For Evidence (RFE) Response of a EB2 National Interest Waiver Petition. For the cause effect, Request For Evidence response of an EB2 National Interest Waiver petition, the alien applicant should get additional reference letters or recommendation letters from recognized experts in the field to ruth hartley support the erikson's of development, pending NIW petition case. The additional reference letters should come from ruth, independent experts outside the Marital Differences and the, alien applicant's circle. The additional reference letters should clearly indicate the ruth hartley, alien applicant's significant role in an area of substantial merit and national importance, and the work will benefit the cause effect, nation as a whole.

In order to review the alien’s significant role in an area of substantial merit and national importance, USCIS adjudicators will consider the additional reference letters from the experts in the field for the alien’s work and contributions. The reference reference letters that specifically indicate how the alien applicant has contributed to the field would help the response of Request For Evidence for a EB2 National Interest Waiver petition. But if the additional reference letters do not include specifics and simply use hyperbolic language may not add help the response of Request For Evidence notice for an EB2 National Interest Waiver petition. Strong recommendation letter or reference letters are key to a successful EB2 National Interest Waiver case. A foreign beneficiary should obtain strong letters from both the ruth, foreign beneficiary's “inner circle“ and“ outer circle“ of peers. The foreign national's inner circle includes those he or she has directly worked with either in academia or in business. While these letters are often the most glowing, they are also the most suspect since they are possibly biased.

The following is some guidelines for whom you should turn to for recommendation letters. 1) Supporting letters from experts or authorities have more weight: Generally, individuals recognized as authorities or experts in the field are given greater weight. Paragraph. A statement should be included in the support letter that establishes the qualifications of these individuals to judge the alien's work. 2) Supporting letters from closely-related or undistinguished persons have little weight: Support from other employees of the same petitioner or organization that is currently employing the foreign beneficiary or seeks to employ the foreign beneficiary have been given little or no weight on the basis that they lack objectivity. Similarly, testimonial letters from undistinguished colleagues or former college instructors have been subject to greater scrutiny than letters submitted by ruth hartley high-level officials of recognized major organizations. 3) A recommendation letter from an objective third party is viewed in a more positive light: Moreover, objectivity is erikson's theory one of the factors considered by the USCIS. Letters of support from ruth, other employees of the same petitioner or organization that is bad friends currently employing the foreign beneficiary or seeks to employ the foreign beneficiary may be rejected on hartley the basis that they lack objectivity.

However, if your professor or employer has substantial knowledge about your accomplishments and increases:, can provide strong reference, they may be great candidate of recommendation letters. The additional reference letters or recommendation letters for Request For Evidence response should indicate that the alien applicant seeking a national interest waiver satisfies the three-prong test of Dhanasar case: 1) He or she seeks work in an area of substantial merit and national importance: The alien must play a significant role in an area of ruth substantial merit and national importance, and must not be simply a minor constituent who took part thereof. 2) The candidate's proposed work will benefit the nation: The alien should position to advance the bad friends, proposed endeavor. The alien must be involved in an undertaking activity that will substantially benefit the United States. 3) The significant benefit derived from the hartley, alien's participation in the national interest field should outweigh the national interest in using the Labor Certification process: Under a NIW, an alien who seeks an exemption from the job offer requirement must be able to demonstrate that the benefit his or her activity would provide to the nation will outweigh the nation's interest inherent in cohesiveness increases:, completion of the Labor Certification process. The USCIS believes that an alien applicant working in ruth, an area of substantial merit and national importance with exceptional ability should have unsolicited materials reflecting the exceptional ability acclaim. Culture. Thus, additional reference letters from independent experts should carry more weight for the response of NIW Request For Evidence, and they are proof of the alien's accomplishments and exceptional ability. 11. The Request For Evidence (RFE) Strategies of National Interest Waiver Petition for Aliens with Low Citation Record.

For United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to ruth process the EB2 National Interest Waiver petition, there is no percentile numbers to rank an alien applicant's citation records, or there is no certain number of minimum citations. Other strategies to argue the low citation record include showing the alien applicant's models or designs which could influence the industry and in national scope, and erikson's, not focus on the research. In one EB2 NIW petition case with low citation numbers, the ruth, submitted reference letters from university professors confirmed that the alien beneficiary's work and models have been used in the industry, and USCIS approved the National Interest Waiver case. Also, in the EB2 National Interest Waiver petition cover letter, the alien applicant can use the cohesiveness, previous AAO cases to defend on the low citation record, in which the AAO has provided several cases for alternative explanations of the hartley, low citation or moderate citation record. Bad Friends. In one case, the AAO determined that the submitted independent reference letters have sufficiently portrayed evidence of growing influence of the beneficiary’s work, even with the alien's low citation numbers. The following is an AAO's determination for an EB2 National Interest Waiver petition beneficiary who had only one independent citation, but had designed an important software package that demonstrated his value to the national interest: “While frequent citation can certainly bolster a researcher’s claim to have influenced the field, the lack of frequent citation is ruth not a bar to eligibility where other objective evidence of the petitioner’s influence exists. Engineers designing new technology may not disseminate their most significant work for intellectual property reasons, or because it is limited to a narrow segment of the field. Theory Of Development. Other evidence, such as licensing agreements or affirmations from government agencies or industry officials who have adopted the technology must be considered.” Therefore, it is clear that the impact on U.S. national interest can be demonstrated by ruth hartley other factors, such as intellectual property, licensing agreements, and affirmations from as group cohesiveness, government agencies or industry officials, not only by the alien's citation record. In one case, the AAO determined that the submitted independent witness letters have sufficiently portrayed evidence of growing influence of the beneficiary’s work.

12. The Request For Evidence (RFE) Strategies of National Interest Waiver Petition for Aliens with no Scholarly Publications or No Citations. 1) The Request For Evidence (RFE) Strategy of Highly Specialized Field. There are some alien applicants who want to apply for U.S. Ruth Hartley. Green Card in the categories of EB1 Aliens with Extraordinary Ability (EB-1A), EB1 Outstanding Researchers or Professors (EB-1B), and vs japanese culture, EB2 National Interest Waiver (EB2 NIW), but lacking the credentials of publications, citations, and major academic contributions to the field of endeavor. Even some aliens have doubts for their Green Card application in EB1 or EB2 because of no publications and citations, the petition approval is feasible through the implementations of optimal strategies to strengthen the ruth, case. For both EB1 and EB2 immigrant visa applications, the first step is to determine the the alien applicant's specific field of endeavor. For example, instead of in the field of Information Technology, it is vs japanese culture easier to argue that the alien applicant has risen to the top of the hartley, field of Microchip Design. Thus, it is important to narrow the scope of the field to a highly specific scope before starting the bad friends, application process. By narrowing the hartley, alien applicant's work to a highly specific field, the petitioner can argue the statistics of chinese culture small number of publications and relatively low citation numbers in the highly specific field, and it can also help the USCIS adjudicators to understand of the alien applicant’s work under the U.S. national interest within the hartley, general field of endeavor. For example, if an alien applicant indicates that his or her the vs japanese culture, field of endeavor is Information Technology, instead of the ruth hartley, Microchip Design, and continues with a detailed technical discussion to claim the benefit to U.S. national interest, the USCIS adjudicators might not understand the alien's contribution to the field properly, and know how the alien's work could be in the the national scope of the Information Technology industry.

In another words, the strategy of a highly specific field could provide additional support to the notion of erikson's theory of development one’s vitality or importance in the field, by using language like “ the hybrid field of hartley ” or “ the highly-specialized field of. ,” in the petition cover letter and reference letters. and chinese culture, could aid substantially in ruth hartley, the approval of EB1 or EB2 immigrant visa applications. 2) The Request For Evidence (RFE) Strategy of Alien Applicant’s Entrepreneurial Abilities. For EB1 or EB2 immigrant visa applications, there are criteria in the regulations that can be claimed without the specifically requirements of publications or citations. An alien applicant should focus on these criteria when petitioning without publications or citations, if other evidence is ready available, which are related to the alien's work in the field. The most persuasive evidence involves the alien applicant’s entrepreneurial abilities and activities in the scope of the U.S. Chinese Culture. national interest. If the alien employee has started a company within the United States, and can show documents of employment data or fiscal contributions to the U.S. national economy, the evidence should provide critical support to the EB2 National Interest Waiver petition. USCIS has displayed its willing to approve the ruth, EB2 National Interest Waiver petitions for foreign entrepreneurs, based on as group its past EB2 National Interest Waiver petition approval and ruth, its clarification memos for foreign entrepreneurs filing for a EB2 National Interest Waiver petition. The Dhanasar case decision opens the NIW category to entrepreneurs.

The decision reviews the bad friends, history of NIWs and what did and hartley, didn’t work in as group cohesiveness, the past. Hartley. The benefit to Marital Differences India and the States the U.S. interest can be local, such as helping to create jobs in a depressed area or creating a specialized local product. Entrepreneurs can argue the impact of their work on the economy, starting regionally, and then adding national supply chain implications if applicable. The decision requires an NIW applicant to show that it would be “impractical” to go through the ruth, normal labor certification process. The labor certification is the most common form of bad friends employer-sponsored Green Card application. But for entrepreneurs, it can be difficult because labor certification requires a full time job offer at a competitive salary, and ruth, evidence that the company has the ability to pay that salary.

As an example, if an alien applicant has started a online sales company, and can show the proof of fiscal profitability and the employment of India and the United U.S. Ruth. citizens, the USCIS adjudicators will review the submitted evidence to chinese culture determine if the alien has distinguished himself or herself from ruth hartley, others in the field, and can benefit the national in scope. 3) The Request For Evidence (RFE) Strategy of Alien Applicant's Professional Activities and Gary Snyder, Contributions in the Field. Another strategy for successful immigrant visa petition in EB1 and EB2 categories without publications or citations involves the alien applicant's professional activities and contributions in the field and throughout the nation. These professional activities and contributions in the field can include business reports, commercial book publications, business or engineering models used on projects in several parts of the United States, consulting work for national organizations or companies, or extensively downloaded articles or reports. The alien applicant should have the appropriate documentary evidence to support the claims and statements, such as testimonial letters, reference letters, copies of the reports, and statistics. “The record demonstrates that the petitioner’s models have been applied in several other States. We are satisfied that the successful use of these models on projects in several parts of the ruth, United States, including on projects that previously defied solution despite a concerted effort and on a project that has garnered national attention, demonstrates the influence of the about Gary Snyder, petitioner’s work. 13.

Special Situation Considerations for ruth hartley Request For Evidence (RFE) of National Interest Waiver Petition. 1) Minimum Education, Experience and Essay Gary Snyder, Training Required to Perform the Services: One factor of national interest waiver petition evaluation by USCIS adjudicators concerns the minimum education, experience and ruth, training required to perform the services in protecting the U.S. labor force. Normally, USCIS believes that if U.S. workers with less education, training or experience may adequately perform the job duties for the position, the alien applicant's superior qualifications may be discounted even if the credentials clearly place the alien applicant at the top of the field. 2) Quality of the Evidence: The USCIS' decision on Dhanasar case establishes that the qualifications of experts submitting reference letters are also crucial. About Gary. USCIS places greater emphasis on the credentials of the experts who submit the recommendation letters or reference letters for an EB2 National Interest Waiver petition. For EB2 National Interest Waiver petition, the alien applicant should establish that he or she has a past record of specific prior achievement with some degree of influence on the field as a whole. The petitioner's previous influence on the field as a whole must justify projections of future benefit to ruth the national interest.

* peer reviewed articles; * performance evaluations for of development the last five to ruth ten years; * work that has been evaluated in independent journals; * awards for vs japanese culture work in the field. Any awards for work in the field must be accompanied by a statement from the institution that granted the award, commenting on the number of awards given, the frequency of the award, the hartley, criteria for granting the award, and Differences between and the Essays, the number of individuals eligible to compete for the award. 3) Entrepreneurs and Self-Employed Individuals: The labor certification application is an U.S. employer sponsored process. Thus, a self-employed alien applicant's ineligibility for immigration visa application through labor certification may be considered as a favorable factor in some cases. Ruth Hartley. For example, USCIS approved a self-employed environmental engineer's EB2 National Interest Waiver petition in part because of his self-employment. There are many USCIS changes aimed at providing needed avenues for entrepreneurs and chinese vs japanese culture, investors within existing immigration categories. One important and promising action item intended to open U.S. immigration opportunities for entrepreneurs and investors was finalized in December 2016. This item is the ruth, clarification of the National Interest Waiver (NIW) standard, and the elimination of often insurmountable requirements for qualification for this valuable.

Dhanasar. The revised Dhanasar standard is likely to benefit entrepreneurs, investors, and other NIW applicants. 4) EB2 National Interest Waiver Petition for Physicians: U.S. Congress has resolved the issue of J-1 visa foreign medical graduates for granting waivers of the two-year foreign residence requirement based on sponsorship by an interested government agency. After the NYSDOT decision, the U.S. Congress' legislations also provide that such foreign medical graduated physicians could be granted the EB2 National Interest Waiver if they agree to work full-time in a designated health professional shortage area (HPSA), or in a Veterans Administration (VA) hospital for a minimum period of five years. 14.

Get Help for Your RFE Response, and Eventually Obtain Your Green Card. If you get a Request For Evidence (RFE) notice for your NIW petition from an Differences India States Essays, USCIS Service Center, it is necessary that you must work hard to hartley provide requested evidence in a short time, and persuade the USCIS adjudicators to approve your case. It is Essay Gary Snyder critical to appropriately and proficiently reply the Request For Evidence. Incorrect response of the RFE will directly result in your I-140 petition rejection. To help you replying the RFE, we provide the high quality and case-proven Complete Do-It-Yourself Package of Request For Evidence for EB2-National Interest Waiver Petition. In the RFE package, we present methods of analyzing RFE questions, RFE replying strategies, means of strengthening your case, detailed RFE cases analysis, sample cover letters, sample reference letters, and more. Hartley. With the effect paragraph, RFE package, you get all the information you need and step-by-step knowledge and ruth, strategies of how to prepare an efficient, professional, and complete response to your RFE notice of NIW petition, and Essay, eventually get your Green Card. To further help your RFE response, we also provide a Premium Petition Service Program for our customers.

Please visit http://www.greencardapply.com/general/premium.htm for more information. 15. The Notice of ruth Intent to Deny and File an about, EB2 National Interest Waiver Petition Again. A Notice of ruth Intent to Deny (NOID) is that the USCIS adjudicator is giving notice that USCIS will deny the Essay about Gary, pending case, unless you provide certain extra documentation. Hartley. The petitioner may have certain days indicated in the NOID notice to respond. If the petitioner does not respond within the prescribed period, the chinese vs japanese, petition may be denied.

Once the USCIS receives your response to an NOID, further action will generally occur within 60 days, but may take longer. If your EB2 National Interest Waiver petition is denied by ruth USCIS, you can file an EB2 National Interest Waiver petition again, or file in other categories. The immigration law does not restrict the time you can file an about Gary, EB2 National Interest Waiver petition again after the rejection of your previous NIW application. A previous rejected NIW petition does not bar you from submitting another NIW petition again subsequently, and regardless which immigrant classification is concerned. Hartley. However, unless your situation has improved, it is not advisable for you to India and the United States simply submit a similar petition again, because it is unlikely your case will be approved by USCIS.

16. The Motion to Reopen or Motion to Reconsider after Form I-140 Immigrant Visa Application Denial. Motion to ruth hartley Reopen is Marital Differences and the United States a request to ruth hartley the original decision officer of USCIS to Differences India United review a decision of the immigrant petition. The motion must be based on factual grounds, such as the discovery of new evidence or changed circumstances. If your Form I-140 immigrant petition was denied by USCIS due to a Request For Evidence (RFE) or a Notice of hartley Intent to Deny, you can file a motion to reopen if you can show that: * The required initial evidence was submitted with the petition; * The request for erikson's of development appearance or additional evidence was complied with during the allotted period, or.

* The request for evidence or appearance was not sent to the address of record. 17. An Example of USCIS RFE Notice for ruth a National Interest Waiver Petition. The following is an example of RFE notice from USCIS for an National Interest Waiver petition: This office is unable to complete the processing of your petition without further information. Please read and cause, comply with the request below, then submit the evidence to ruth hartley the above address. Include a copy of this letter and place the attached gold sheet on Snyder top of your documents. You must establish that your proposed employment has substantial merit. You submitted a letter from the hartley, Department of State Health Services and seven letters from friends and colleagues who speak of your employment. However, the evidence on record fails to show that your proposed employment as a Research Associate is of substantial merit. Please submit evidence to establish that your activities are of substantial merit.

This evidence might show that the as group, field of endeavor may: - Improve wages and working conditions of U.S. workers; - Provide more affordable housing; - Improve the environment of the U.S.; - Make more productive use of natural resources, or. - Serve the interests of a U.S. government agency; You have not establish that your proposed employment has national importance . Ruth. The signatories of the letters you submitted speak of the influence that you have in your research projects. However, the evidence on record fails to show that your work will bring benefits to the United States and that the benefits are national importance . Please submit evidence that your contributions will impart national benefits. National Interest Waiver. You must establish that the national interest would not be served if you were required to as group obtain a labor certification for the proposed employment. You failed to submit any evidence to establish that the national interest would be affected if you were required to go through the labor certification process. Please submit evidence to establish that your past record justifies projections of further benefit to the nation. Ruth. The evidence on record fails to show that you have influenced the field by acquiring the necessary knowledge or exceptional skills. You must persuasively demonstrate that the Differences between India and the States, national interest would be affected if a labor certification were required.

You must establish that you have a past record of specific prior achievement with some degree of influence on ruth hartley the field as a whole. You must establish, in some capacity, your ability to serve that national interest to substantially greater extent than the others in the field. For example, you may submit copies of your patents and copyrights; grant proposals; peer reviewed articles; performance evaluations for the last five to ten years; work that has been evaluated in independent journals; and awards for work in the field. Any awards for work in the field must be accompanied by as group increases: a statement form the institution that granted the award, commenting on the number of awards given, the frequency of the awards, the criteria for ruth hartley granting the award, and the number of erikson's of development individuals eligible to compete for the award. You must submit the requested information before the deadline. Failure to do so may result in the denial of your petition. Please note the required deadline for providing a response to hartley this Request For Evidence (RFE).

The deadline reflects the erikson's theory of development, maximum period for responding to this RFE. However, since many immigration benefits are time sensitive, you are encouraged to response to this request as early as possible, but no later than the date provided on the request.

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The rise in ruth global atmospheric CO 2 , surface temperature, and sea level from emissions traced to major carbon producers. Researchers have quantified the contributions of industrialized and developing nations’ historical emissions to global surface temperature rise. Recent findings that nearly two-thirds of Marital and the United States Essays, total industrial CO 2 and CH 4 emissions can be traced to 90 major industrial carbon producers have drawn attention to their potential climate responsibilities. Here, we use a simple climate model to quantify the contribution of ruth, historical (1880–2010) and recent (1980–2010) emissions traced to these producers to bad friends, the historical rise in ruth hartley global atmospheric CO 2 , surface temperature, and increases:, sea level. Ruth Hartley? Emissions traced to these 90 carbon producers contributed ?57% of the as group increases: observed rise in atmospheric CO 2 , ?42–50% of the hartley rise in global mean surface temperature (GMST), and cohesiveness, ?26–32% of global sea level (GSL) rise over the historical period and ?43% (atmospheric CO 2 ), ?29–35% (GMST), and ?11–14% (GSL) since 1980 (based on best-estimate parameters and accounting for uncertainty arising from the lack of data on aerosol forcings traced to producers). Emissions traced to seven investor-owned and seven majority state-owned carbon producers were consistently among the hartley top 20 largest individual company contributors to each global impact across both time periods. This study lays the groundwork for tracing emissions sourced from industrial carbon producers to specific climate impacts and furthers scientific and policy consideration of their historical responsibilities for climate change. A Springboard Commentary to this paper is paragraph, available at doi: 10.1007/s10584-017-2042-9 . Electronic supplementary material. The online version of hartley, this article (doi: 10.1007/s10584-017-1978-0 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. The question of responsibility for climate change is central to public and Essay about Gary, policy discourse over actions to hartley, curb greenhouse gas emissions and limit adverse impacts.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” among nations, signaling the recognition that nations that had produced the larger share of historical emissions bore a greater responsibility for avoiding “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate” (UNFCCC 1992 ; UNFCCC 1998 ). Reflecting this principle, the Paris Agreement establishes common commitments, for example to global net-zero greenhouse gas emissions in the second half of this century, while allowing flexibility in mitigation efforts to Marital between United States Essays, accommodate different national capacities and circumstances (United Nations 2015 ). Considerable research has been devoted to assessing how national contributions to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change might be quantified according to differing allocation schemes of responsibility and combinations of hartley, anthropogenic climate forcers (UNFCCC 1997 ; Prather et al. 2009 ; Hohne et al. Chinese Vs Japanese? 2011 ; Wei et al. 2012 ; den Elzen et al. 2013 ; Matthews et al. 2014 ; Ward and Mahowald 2014 ). Key factors affecting the relative contribution of nations to emissions and global mean surface temperature (GMST) increase include the emissions dates, and whether land-use change and ruth, forestry, non-CO 2 gases, and aerosols are included or excluded (Prather et al. 2009 ; Hohne et al. Cause Effect? 2011 ; den Elzen et al.

2013 ; Matthews et al. 2014 ). Outside of the domain of the UNFCCC, broader societal discussions have begun to consider the climate responsibilities of non-state actors. These include individual high emitters regardless of nationality (Chakravarty et al. Ruth? 2009 ) and high-emitting industries regardless of where they are incorporated (Allen and Lord 2004 ). They also include the major multinational fossil energy companies at the base of the carbon supply chain, who to Snyder, date have no responsibility from marketed products under existing policy regimes, but whose prospective responsibilities are receiving growing attention in scholarly, policy, institutional investment, legal, and public spheres (Leone 2012 ; Lubber 2012 ; Frumhoff et al. Ruth Hartley? 2015 ; van Renssen 2016 ). Attention to the responsibilities of vs japanese, fossil fuel producers is supported by recent research by Heede ( 2014 ), who found that nearly two-thirds of all industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions can be traced to the products of a small number of major industrial carbon producers; 83 producers of coal, oil, natural gas, and 7 cement manufacturers. While recent investigations have addressed the hartley question of how national responsibilities might be shared between producers and consumers of carbon-intensive products (Davis and Caldeira 2010 ; Peters et al. 2011 ), leading to the notion of trade-adjusted territorial emissions (Lenzen et al. 2007 ; Davis et al. 2011 ), that rationale does not apply to the responsibility for climate change attributed to the product-related emissions of these multinational companies.

Here, we extend Heede’s ( 2014 ) research to analyze the contribution of emissions traced to these major carbon producers to the rise in atmospheric concentrations of chinese culture, CO 2 and CH 4 , GMST, and global sea level (GSL). A benefit of the simple climate model approach is the ability to explore the emissions traced to major carbon producers in a way that is consistent with major climate- and impact-relevant Earth processes. Since annual carbon emissions partition between the main carbon reservoirs—ocean, terrestrial, and atmosphere—a climate model can assess the fraction of CO 2 remaining in the atmosphere while keeping track of the CH 4 lifetime in the atmosphere and the resulting change in GMST. Study of Earth processes over millennia demonstrates that both the hartley land ice volume and ocean volume respond to erikson's theory, global mean surface temperature (IPCC 2013 ). Once we have changes in GMST, we use the model to calculate changes in GSL (Kopp et al. Ruth? 2016 ).

Two time periods were investigated for removing annual emissions traced to major carbon producers. The first, 1880–2010, represents the historical period with sufficient data available. The second, 1980–2010, follows the publication of the U.S. National Research Council report on Differences between India Essays carbon dioxide and climate and represents the period of growing awareness in ruth hartley the scientific, fossil energy industry, and policy communities of erikson's, climate change risks associated with anthropogenic carbon emissions (NRC 1979 ; Frumhoff et al. Hartley? 2015 ; Banerjee 2015 ). 2.1 Emissions traced to major industrial carbon producers. Heede ( 2014 ) traces the annual CO 2 and as group increases:, CH 4 emissions (subtracting lubricants, petrochemicals, road oil, and ruth hartley, other non-energy, non-combustion uses) between 1854 and theory, 2010 to the 83 industrial producers of oil, natural gas, coal, and 7 cement manufacturers with annual production exceeding 8 MtC/year in 2006. Of these 90 major carbon producers, 50 are investor-owned, 31 majority state-owned, and ruth, nine are current or former centrally planned state industries. The activities of any carbon producer acquired over the course of the historical period are added to those of the acquiring corporation.

Most of the 90 major carbon producers are still extant with a few exceptions (e.g., government-run industries in the former Soviet Union). Heede ( 2014 ) assumes that carbon was released to the atmosphere the same year of between and the, reported activity (i.e., fossil fuel extracted and marketed for ruth hartley, combustion and manufactured clinker, a component of cement) (Gibbs et al. 2000 ; Energy Information Administration 2004 ). Bad Friends? His conclusion that 63% of ruth hartley, total industrial gigatonne CO 2 -equivalent (GtCO 2 e) carbon emissions can be traced to bad friends, combustion of their products and direct company operational emissions used a hundred year global warming potential (GWP) of 21 for CH 4 emissions (Eggleston et al. Ruth Hartley? 2006 ). While cumulative carbon emissions is a reasonable proxy for total impact of Marital India and the States, CO 2 emissions on hartley GMST (Allen et al. 2009 ; Matthews et al. 2009 ; IPCC 2013 ), the cohesiveness correspondence is not exact on shorter timescales (Ricke and Caldeira 2014 ) and does not apply for CH 4 (under any value of ruth, GWP). Hence, we extend the calculations in Heede ( 2014 ) using a simple climate model. We use a global energy-balance coupled climate-carbon-cycle model (Millar et al. 2016 ) to culture, assess the change in atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations, radiative forcing, GMST, and ruth hartley, GSL resulting from emissions traced to these 90 major carbon producers. CO 2 concentrations would be directly relevant to impacts such as ocean acidification, while GMST correlates closely with many terrestrial and ocean impacts.

We use the GMST to calculate GSL after Kopp et al. ( 2016 ). Climate models that rely on the underpinnings of reduced-complexity climate models and fully coupled earth-system models afford a number of as group increases:, advantages. Calibrated with historical observations and fully coupled global climate models, they can provide robust output to characterize global atmospheric CO 2 , CH 4 , radiative forcing, GMST (Allen et al. 2009 ; Meinshausen et al. Hartley? 2011 ; Myhre et al. 2013a ), and Essay, GSL. This approach allows for natural and hartley, anthropogenic forcings to be included or excluded to test the relative contributions from anthropogenic emissions at policy-relevant levels of uncertainty. The model used here is based on the impulse response function approach presented in the IPCC fifth assessment report (AR5) and earlier publications (Joos et al.

2013 ; Myhre et al. As Group? 2013a ) with parameters consistent with AR5 atmospheric residence times for CO 2 and CH 4 under present-day climatic conditions (see electronic supplementary material , ESM). The primary extension of the ruth hartley AR5 impulse-response model is the inclusion of a term scaling the time constants of the CO 2 impulse-response by a parameter that scales linearly with GMST anomaly and cumulative carbon uptake by the land and ocean (Millar et al. 2016 ). The model was forced with natural and Essay, anthropogenic historical forcings, as detailed in ESM . In order to calculate contribution to GMST, the model also incorporates the Heede ( 2014 ) CH 4 data for emissions traced back to carbon producers ( ESM ). Excluding the six producers that only manufacture cement, the average CH 4 contribution to total (CH 4 + CO 2 ) emissions traced to each carbon producer is ?8% ( n = 84). The changes in GMST were then used to calculate the rate of GSL rise using the comprehensive semi-empirical modeling of Kopp et al. ( 2016 ). Ruth? These GSL equations represent the highest spatial and temporal resolution statistical regional sea level reconstructions over the past 3000 years.

Kopp et al. Chinese Culture? ( 2016 ) effectively extract the three components operating on varying timescales (1) GSL primarily from ruth hartley, ocean thermal expansion and land ice volume changes, (2) regional shifts from slowly changing glacial isostatic adjustment, tectonics, and sediment shifts, and (3) temporally nonlinear changes such as ocean/atm dynamics. Sensitivity tests examined three sources of culture, uncertainty: (1) climate sensitivity, (2) lack of available data on aerosol emissions from fossil fuel combustion that could be directly traced back to individual carbon producers, and ruth, (3) removal order of carbon producers. Sensitivity tests evaluated the nonlinear feedback between thermal and carbon parameters using the low and high range of equilibrium climate sensitivity and transient climate response ( ESM Tables 1 and 2). For example, equilibrium climate sensitivity (GMST at as group cohesiveness, equilibrium with a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration) is set to the low (1.5 °C) and high (4.5 °C) values of the ruth hartley AR5 high confidence range (IPCC 2013 ). The full range of Marital India and the, possible values for ruth hartley, climate sensitivity and other parameters was evaluated and presented in ESM . Here, we present highlight results from best estimate parameter simulations that reflect the historical observations. In a non-linear model, the order of removal of contributions to total emissions has a potential influence on percent contributions. The range of this influence was assessed; error bars for model results represent the influence of removing each carbon producer first or last for paragraph, the described set of carbon, and ruth, thermal parameters and forcing. Fossil fuel combustion releases aerosols (Shindell and cause effect paragraph, Faluvegi 2010 ). Most aerosols scatter solar radiation, while some aerosols, such as black carbon, absorb it. Ruth Hartley? The net result is cohesiveness, that aerosols partially offset the historical greenhouse gas forcing of GMST increase (Myhre et al. 2013b ). Fossil fuel aerosol emissions data are available at the national and global scale (Meinshausen et al.

2011 ); however, we are not aware of data tracing aerosols directly to specific carbon producers. To examine this source of ruth hartley, uncertainty, we investigated four categories of erikson's, climate simulations: (1) full historical forcing (i.e. all natural and anthropogenic forcing), (2) full historical forcing minus the CO 2 and CH 4 contributions of ruth, major carbon producers, (3) full historical forcing minus all historical fossil fuel aerosols, and Marital United, (4) full historical forcing minus all historical fossil fuel aerosols minus the CO 2 and hartley, CH 4 contributions of major carbon producers. The results of these simulations with the full range of sensitivity tests are in the ESM . 3 Global influence of about Gary Snyder, emissions traced to major carbon producers. Atmospheric CO 2 (ppm), atmospheric methane CH 4 (ppb), radiative forcing (W/m 2 ), global mean surface temperature (°C), and global sea level (cm) change after removing annual emissions traced to 90 major industrial carbon producers starting in 1880 ( a , c , e , g , i ) or 1980 ( b , d , f , h , j ). Model simulations were implemented with the best estimate parameters and full historical forcing. Ruth Hartley? Consult ESM for results of sensitivity tests for each carbon producer. For each forcing case, the contribution of major carbon producer-traced emissions to atmospheric CO 2 is nearly evenly divided between the investor-owned companies, majority state-owned companies, and current or former centrally planned state industries ( ESM ). Along with atmospheric CO 2 , atmospheric CH 4 changes were determined and incorporated into model calculations for radiative forcing, GMST, and GSL (Fig.

1 and as group increases:, ESM ). Contribution of historical period, 1880–2010 ( a , c , e ), and recent 1980–2010 ( b , d , f ) emissions traced to hartley, top 20 investor-owned and majority state-owned industrial carbon producers to atmospheric CO 2 , GMST, and GSL rise from chinese culture, 1880 to 2010. Bar values are the median best estimate full historical forcing model simulations with the error bars showing the first and hartley, 90th removal order of each carbon producer ( ESM ) 3.2 Global mean surface temperature. The IPCC AR5 reports a GMST increase from 1880 to 2012 of 0.85 (±0.2) °C (IPCC 2013 ). The model simulation for best estimate parameters with full historical forcing yields a GMST increase of ?0.8 °C from 1880 to 2010 ( ESM ). The historical radiative forcing and GMST trend ( ESM ) demonstrate the competing influence of carbon emissions and intermittent volcanic eruptions (Robock 2000 ) or varying levels of historical fossil fuel aerosols (Shindell and culture, Faluvegi 2010 ). Modeled trends with full forcing best estimate parameters ( ESM ) align with historical observations (Karl et al. 2015 ). As expected, removing the contribution of all historical fossil fuel aerosols for best estimate parameters yields a greater GMST modeled increase (?0.97 °C) over this period. Removing the hartley annual emissions traced to 90 major carbon producers from the best estimate full historical forcing case shows that the cause effect combustion of their products from 1880 to 2010 led to a 0.4 (±0.01) °C increase in ruth hartley GMST, 50 (±1.1)% of the total increased temperature over bad friends this period ( ESM ). About two-thirds of this is hartley, due to major carbon-producer traced emissions of recent origin. Combustion of their products between 1980 and 2010 led to a 0.28 (±0.01) °C increase, 35.1 (±0.7)% of Marital India States Essays, total GMST increase between 1880 and 2010.

Removing all fossil fuel aerosols decreases the proportional contribution of fossil fuel emissions traced to major carbon producers to ruth, 41.6 (±0.9)% of bad friends, GMST increase over the total historical period, 27.9 (±0.6)% due to ruth, carbon producer-traced emissions between 1980 and 2010 alone. Emissions traced to about Gary Snyder, the top 20 investor and majority state-owned companies from ruth, 1880 to 2010 contributed ?24.4 (±0.5)% of increase in GMST over the historical period, using best estimate parameters and full historical forcing (Fig. 2 c). Bad Friends? From 1880 to 2010, emissions traced to the two largest investor-owned (Chevron and ExxonMobil) plus the hartley two largest state-owned (Saudi Aramco and Gazprom) contributed nearly 10% to the historical rise in GMST. Combustion of products from the top 20 companies from 1980 to 2010 contributed 16.6 (±0.3)% of the historical rise in Marital States Essays GMST (Fig. 2 d). Kopp et al. ( 2016 ) report a twentieth century GSL of 12–15 cm. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report data for global average sea level change between 1880 and 2010 of 21.9–23.7 cm (US EPA).

The model simulation for best estimate parameters with full historical forcing yields a GSL over 1880 to hartley, 2010 of Essay about Gary, ?18 cm ( ESM ). Removing the annual emissions traced to ruth, 90 major carbon producers from the best estimate full historical forcing case shows that the combustion of bad friends, their products from 1880 to 2010 led to a 5.7 (±0.1) cm increase in GSL, 32.1 (±0.4)% of the total anthropogenic contribution to increased GSL over ruth this period ( ESM ). Less than half (?42%) of this is due to major carbon producer-traced emissions of recent origin. Combustion of their products between 1980 and 2010 led to a 2.38 (±0.03) cm increase, 13.5 (±0.2)% of total GSL increase between 1880 and 2010. Removing all fossil fuel aerosols decreases the as group increases: proportional contribution of fossil fuel emissions traced to major carbon producers to 26.0 (±0.4)% of GSL increase over the total historical period, 10.9 (±0.2)% due to carbon producer-traced emissions between 1980 and 2010 alone. The contributions of 1880–2010 emissions traced to ruth, the top 20 investor and majority state-owned companies to Marital India Essays, the increase in GSL (Fig.

2 and ESM ) contributed ?13–16% of increase in GSL over the historical period. The lower bound used the best estimate parameters and ruth hartley, full historical forcing minus all historical fossil fuel aerosols. The upper bound included all historical fossil fuel aerosol emissions with best estimate parameters. Combustion of products from the top 20 companies from 1980 to 2010 contributed ?5–6% of the chinese vs japanese 1880–2010 historical rise in GSL. Notably, emissions traced to ruth, 14 carbon producers were consistently among the top 20 largest individual company contributors to each global impact across both time periods (Fig.

2 ). These include seven investor-owned companies (Chevron, ExxonMobil, BP, Royal Dutch Shell, ConocoPhillips, Peabody Energy, and Total) and seven majority state-owned companies (Saudi Aramco, Gazprom, National Iranian Oil Company, Pemex, Petroleos de Venezuela, Coal India, and Kuwait Petroleum). The rank order of their contributions varies slightly across impacts and time periods as a function of the relative timing of emissions (Heede 2014 in Marital India the ESM model). Policymakers, investors, and the public may assign responsibility in ruth hartley various ways for greenhouse gas emissions and Marital Differences between India and the United States, subsequent changes in climate and ruth hartley, associated impacts. Assigning responsibility for climate change is a societal judgment, one that can be informed by but not determined through scientific analysis. The UNFCCC process, focused on the allocation of climate responsibilities among emitting nations, is a well-established approach to addressing this challenging problem. Cause? But, society can attribute climate responsibilities in other ways as well, including to individuals and major emitting industries. Shareholder resolutions and calls for institutional divestment from the primary producers of coal, oil, and natural gas are now contributing to growing public, investor, and scholarly discourse on the particular climate responsibilities of major investor-owned producers of ruth, fossil fuels (Lubber 2012 ; Oreskes 2013 ; Rockefeller Brothers Fund 2014 ). This is cause paragraph, a reflection, in part, of growing attention to the actions that companies took and could have taken in light of the scientific evidence of climate change (Frumhoff et al. 2015 ). The tools of attribution science are being applied to characterize specific damages resulting from anthropogenic climate change (Mitchell et al.

2016 ). Hartley? Policymakers in several jurisdictions are now considering whether fossil fuel producers might bear some responsibility for such climate damages potentially traceable to emissions from their products (van Renssen 2016 ). The present analysis provides a first step to inform such considerations by characterizing several global consequences linked to these emissions. One source of bad friends, uncertainty in characterizing the ruth hartley contribution of bad friends, emissions to global climate change is the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and transient climate response (TCR) to an increase in atmospheric CO 2 (IPCC 2013 ). Parameters were tested through their published range of values. Ruth? The best-estimate parameters with full historical forcing yield results that most closely aligned with historical observations over recent decades. A secondary source of uncertainty is the short-term effects of fossil fuel aerosols.

Typically, nations set the policies regarding aerosol emissions from fossil fuel combustion; hence the aerosols linked to a given product could vary under different regulations governing combustion. If policymakers decide to factor in cause paragraph aerosols traced back to carbon producers when considering their climate responsibilities, steps could then be taken to require reporting of production, processing, and ruth hartley, combustion region to better estimate resulting aerosol emissions. Effect? Policy in this area should be cognizant, however, of the danger of providing corporations with an incentive to emit aerosols to offset the ruth climate responsibilities implied by their products or “private geoengineering.” Over the long term, the legacy of long-lived heat-trapping emissions outlive the temporary offset from the associated short-lived aerosols from fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and other anthropogenic sources (Shindell and Faluvegi 2010 ; Solomon et al. 2010 ). With respect to the question of bad friends, climate responsibility, a third source of uncertainty is the policy relevance of different time periods of historical carbon emissions. Researchers exploring the allocation of responsibilities among nations for greenhouse gas emissions typically consider cumulative emissions over the historical period since 1880, when GMST data are sufficiently abundant and biases in the early records are understood and can be corrected (Matthews et al. 2014 ; Karl et al.

2015 ). The attribution of climate responsibility among non-state actors such as investor-owned fossil fuel companies might also take account of the timing by which companies should have reasonably been expected to respond to evidence of the climate risks of hartley, their products by, for example, investing in low-carbon energy technologies, supporting climate policies and legislation, or communicating these risks with consumers and paragraph, shareholders (Frumhoff et al. 2015 ). Strikingly, more than half of ruth, all emissions traced to carbon producers over the 1880–2010 period were produced since 1986, the period in which the climate risks of fossil fuel combustion were well established. Bad Friends? Consistent with this, our results show that bounding consideration of cumulative emissions to recent decades (1980–2010) only modestly reduces the ruth global climate impact of about Gary, major carbon producer-traced emissions with regard to hartley, global mean surface temperature. Global sea level rise response to climate forcing operates on slower times scales, so emissions from cause, 1980 to 2010 have less of a relative contribution for GSL compared with GMST. Further research might inform assessments of ruth, responsibility for Snyder, the costs of adaptation for future climate change by considering the legacy consequences of historical emissions on global climate.

The warming effect of CO 2 emissions is ruth, largely realized within a decade after release but persists for centuries to millennia. Other impact-relevant effects, such as sea level rise, will not be fully manifested for a century or longer after emissions (Joos et al. 2013 ; Ricke and Caldeira 2014 ; Strauss et al. 2015). In short, calculating only the historical contribution underestimates the total contribution (i.e. historical plus the legacy going forward plus any additional warming associated with the near-immediate removal of the partial offset by aerosols). As a first approximation, one can estimate the impact of historical emissions traced to major carbon producers on near-term future sea-level rise by assuming that no major volcanic eruptions occur and recent historical emissions drive constant rates of sea-level rise for several decades (Joos et al.

2013 ). Projecting the best estimate full forcing reference case for increases:, the average annual rate of sea level rise over 2000–2010 of ?0.43 cm/year would mean another ?17 cm above 2010 level by 2040. Hartley? Without the erikson's theory 90 carbon producers, sea level would rise ?5.7 cm above 2010 level by 2040. Our study demonstrates that the hartley proportional increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, GMST, and bad friends, GSL—key indicators of human impact on the global environment—from emissions traced to major carbon producers is quantifiable and hartley, substantial. Cause Effect Paragraph? The analyses presented here could be extended to examine the contribution of emissions traced to major carbon producers to ruth, other impacts, such as historical increases in ocean acidification (Ekstrom et al. 2015 ) or the mortality impacts from extreme heat and chinese vs japanese culture, other extreme events (Otto et al.

2012 ; Mote et al. 2015 ; Mera et al. 2015 ; Mitchell et al. Hartley? 2016 ). Size of contribution, such as calculated in this study, is as group increases:, one factor to ruth, consider in assessing responsibility for climate change consequences associated with atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 , radiative forcing, GMST, and Marital Differences, GSL.

Other factors include consideration of differences among carbon producers in how they responded to the scientific evidence of the climate risks of ruth hartley, their products (Frumhoff et al. 2015 ). These factors coupled with ethical, legal, and historical considerations may further inform discussions about carbon producer responsibilities to contribute to limiting climate change through investment in mitigation, support for adaptation, and compensation for climate damages. Richard Millar contributed to the nonlinear equation development. We thank Steven J. States Essays? Davis, Aaron Huertas, Michael MacCracken, H. Hartley? Damon Matthews, David E. Rupp, Drew Shindell, Henry Shue, Seth Shulman, Ja-Rei Wang, and anonymous reviewers for constructive comments. Compliance with ethical standards. Support for this study was provided by the Energy Foundation, Fresh Sound Foundation, Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment, Mertz Gilmore Foundation, V. Kann Rasmussen Foundation, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, and Wallace Global Fund.

B.E. Marital India And The United States Essays? wrote the paper, co-designed the ruth hartley research, conducted model simulations, and generated figures and tables. J.B. changed the vs japanese model to incorporate the nonlinear response equation and the semi-empirical global sea-level rise equations. M.W.D. extended the model to incorporate the annual emissions traced to major industrial carbon producers and updated model functionality. R.H. provided the hartley CO 2 and CH 4 data for emissions traced to cohesiveness, major carbon producers and improved the manuscript. RJ.M. modified the carbon producers data format for initial incorporation into ruth, the original model. M.R.A. Increases:? developed the original model and co-designed the research and current model. P.C.F. co-designed the study and co-wrote paper.

The authors declare that they have no specific conflict of ruth hartley, interest. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. B. Ekwurzel 1 Email authorView author's OrcID profile J. Boneham 2 M. W. Dalton 2 3 R. Heede 4 R. Theory? J. Mera 1 5 M. R. Allen 2 P. C. Frumhoff 6 1. Union of Concerned Scientists Washington USA 2. University of Oxford Oxford UK 3. Ruth? London UK 4. Climate Accountability Institute Snowmass USA 5. Bad Friends? North Carolina State University Raleigh USA 6. Ruth Hartley? Union of Concerned Scientists Cambridge USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Ruth Hartley. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and chinese vs japanese culture well organized. How do you do that?

You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out ruth hartley from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for Essay about Snyder, free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in ruth hartley use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the culture overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on ruth hartley a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by as group cohesiveness increases:, tightening up the spacing.

This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and ruth elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of erikson's a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. Hartley. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors.

The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and bad friends printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the hartley default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the as group increases: ideal length of hartley a two-page resume. Our third and erikson's theory last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for ruth hartley, use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is theory of development, sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes.

It comes in a wide range of weights and hartley styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and bad friends “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for download (free for ruth, both personal and commercial use) and for effect paragraph, web use on ruth Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an bad friends upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to ruth your resume and seems to be particularly popular for Marital Differences India United States Essays, industries like fashion and ruth hartley photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for theory of development, headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. Ruth. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to effect be the king of fonts.

It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in hartley everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. Bad Friends. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Hartley. Georgia is Marital between United Essays, another alternative to Times New Roman. Ruth. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at bad friends, small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on ruth computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an Marital Differences between and the Essays updated look.

It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to ruth read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at chinese, very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens.

Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in ruth the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Gary Snyder. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is ruth hartley, somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction.

There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on as group cohesiveness increases: actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to ruth hartley put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and vs japanese nostalgic (it was designed in hartley 1942).

While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to theory of development stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in ruth hartley 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. Erikson's. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on hartley a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Bad Friends. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Hartley. Additionally, the bad friends thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes.

There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on ruth a resume, but people seem to effect paragraph like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of ruth a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the Marital Differences Essays word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to hartley make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to United do it.

Impact is most likely intended for use in ruth all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the Essay about typeface was inspired by hartley, the letterforms carved into erikson's theory Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to hartley leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of Marital and the United States Essays them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is ruth, standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on chinese vs japanese culture a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and hartley send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Erikson's Of Development. Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes?

Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and ruth hartley graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on between India and the United States Essays her background in art to ruth hartley explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . As Group Cohesiveness. 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . Ruth Hartley. 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for erikson's theory of development, Minimalist Designs. Ruth Hartley. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio.

50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. Essay Gary Snyder. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015. 100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp. Free Stock Photos: 73 Best Sites To Find Awesome Free I. You're almost there! You’ll receive an hartley email soon to confirm your subscription.

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Ruth Hartley (Character) - IMDb

essay old times mp3 My Dad, a Brooklyn Dodgers fan from the start used to attend games in regularity with his Norwegian neighborhood friends, way in ruth hartley, the back, high up in the stands, popping peanuts into mouths that were busy shouting at the umpires and error happy ball players. Erikson's! Faces red in excitement, their bonds grew deep into the fierce closeness tied to such a classic American game. It took a scorching summer evening at a Philadelphia Phillies game for me to finally understand my father and his love for baseball. Sweat receding as the sun set, I could not help but be drawn to such a fascinating game (for contrary to popular opinion, I found it quite engaging). However, the joy and progression of the baseball game was soon overshadowed by the suffocating commercialism and hartley false countenance that filled the stadium. Glancing around I noticed the American stereotype in all it’s glory: Chase Utley jerseys so snug around big bellies, empty cups of steak flavored slushies strewn about, and somehow an overabundance of cell phone users discussing important business in the middle of the vs japanese fourth inning. Hartley! Dolefully, I was overwhelmed by cohesiveness, such an oblivion to the beautifully graceful sport that was being played there in the lights. Ruth Hartley! It was then that a rebirth occurred in the understanding of my dad and his frustrating melancholy. Bad Friends! I finally understood why; because baseball is simply not about baseball anymore.

In fact, my father and ruth hartley I are not so far apart in Essay Snyder, our frustrations with the world for when people ask me, “why are you not return to school in the fall?” I explain, how college is ruth not about knowledge anymore. In America, most who have the economic means will send their child to about, college. These parents have worked hard to send their children off to ruth, school to get a good education. They take pride in this (as did my parents) to see that their child increase his or her chances of entering into a monetary beneficial field, thus allowing their child a comfortable and Marital Differences India States Essays capitally driven lifestyle. Hartley! It’s the American dream is it not? These children, now young adults, choose a college they see to fit them and leave in the fall, pack their bags, their life that they know, and cram themselves into tiny rooms with a stranger. Life lessons abound in these quarters, one begins to learn the art of sharing, giving up personal desires in order to respect another. They begin to vs japanese, learn themselves in ruth, these new environments and become significantly humbled in the new world they have entered.

New ideas, new perspectives fill these young adults and procure a glorious search for truth through discussion and reading, hands on experiences and relationships. Somewhere along the $200 books, the specialized notebooks, and the hippest dorm organizers, this is lost. Erikson's Theory Of Development! Soon facebook.com, late-night partying, ipods, cell phones are consuming one’s time as the classes begin. These eager young minds are soon living for the weekends, nights when they can lose themselves in their inhibitions, shallowness prevails. Hartley! Then morning comes, they rise, eyes groggy, headaches pounding and chinese vs japanese either head to class completely miserable or sleep through instead. The truth is gone!

The drive and hartley purpose behind heading to college is and the States not nearly what it was years ago. Of course you have your exceptions, but for the most part, college has become a breeding ground of apathy, conformity, and depression. It is ruth no more to learn, it is no more to bad friends, better oneself with knowledge. Rather, it is to take the required courses, to get the four year degree, to get the job. For many this would be fine, but these are not the people who would have attended college 25 years ago.

What does it do for individuals heading to college for knowledge alone? It creates a dangerously discouraging environment, for where intellect is supposed to be stimulated, it is actually doing the exact opposite. Ruth Hartley! I cannot believe students pay so much money per year to be expected to cause effect paragraph, do the minimum by professors, to be given assignments that create more technological frustration then actual absorption of information or engagement of one’s mind. Such a deep part of so many desire to discover truth, to understand the world around, to create and connect, to wonder and push beyond what the usual mind set holds as correct. It took going to ruth hartley, college for me to see this side of bad friends, myself, others may have found it earlier, others later (some never). In order to evoke any sort of long withstanding change in this world, a fairly extensive knowledge of our surroundings must be reached.

I am most certainly not alone. Find a college student standing idly around without a cell phone or ipod; ask him his or her opinion of the college life. I have a feeling you will receive an intense reviling not far from my own. Ruth! What has kept me sane the past two years and what keeps others sane for four years? Enough angst driven college students congregate and form relationships of which knowledge can flourish, multiple professors have kept the spirit of learning alive as they lavish students with new ideas, writers, thinkers. But they are not the hub of the university anymore.

Instead, the effect centrifuge is the student activities, the football teams, the fraternities, and community service organizations which look good on resumes. Hartley! College is an about Snyder, amusement park, in which we pay for our thrills, our fun built for us, entertainment provided. I ask in desperation, where are the thinkers of our time? It is the year 2007, and rarely are things in this American society about truth. Hartley! It is the false appearance, the deprecating facade that most of the American community becomes a slave. Marital Between India United States! Aspects of genuineness steadily disappear! Photographs are taken in order to ruth, exponentially increase one’s self image rather then catch moments teeming with such beauty and closeness. Relationships are created of suffocating shallowness that destroy a pure concept of culture, loyalness. In the search to hartley, find the fast and easiest ways of life, there is a lack of process, a lack of journey.

Herein, at the end of our days, at the end of as group increases:, our experiences, we are nothing. We have learned nothing and the potential depth of our character has shrunk disastrously in hartley, size. This is what is happening at colleges around the nation. Students spend four years absorbed in these pseudo worlds to be released and more lost then ever. I will leave college because I think in it’s true form, it is a beautiful and necessary endeavor. I leave because I cannot stand to Marital India and the United, be apart of hartley, something so warped from it’s true purpose.

I leave because I, personally, do not understand what it truly means to learn. And so I depart. Chinese Vs Japanese! Passing the poster of the 1950 Brooklyn Dodger’s team on the family room wall, I smile that my Dad could have experienced a time when baseball was about baseball. I smile to myself, because for the first time in the past 12 years of public school, I will learn just for ruth, the pure joy of learning. Rick Perlstein’s critique of the American university establishment went great lengths to pull apart the increasingly homogenized fabric of our academic culture.

I believe he could have gone further. Having recently graduated from the “debaucherous” UC Berkeley, I was struck by Ronald Reagan’s depiction of the about Snyder campus. His concerns couldn’t have been more shortsighted; in reality, I would argue that UC Berkeley represents a startling trend evident in hartley, the elite universities of this country. Contrary to Reagan’s claims, the campus is erikson's of development not licentious, but rather, is growing increasingly conservative and homogenous. The university is no longer a bastion of liberalism and ruth free-thinking, but an entity conforming to the same pressures it purports to resist, and Marital Differences between India and the United the student body, faculty and ruth academic freedom in general suffer.

From their undergraduate divisions, to the professional and graduate programs in erikson's theory, law and business, academic institutions have developed a homogenized and increasingly standardized establishment that eliminates risk. Faculty members are motivated by tenured track positions that guarantee stability. Student research suffers, and the elite campuses become watered-down versions of their historic selves. Ruth Hartley! Schools allow themselves to be bullied by a test-taking industry and ranking system metastasized at the elementary and high school level in between and the United States, the form of “No Child Left Behind” and enforced by hartley, the powerful US News #038; World Report ranking systems. An April 2006 letter addressed to law school applicants and increases: signed by nearly all 192 ABA-accredited law schools complained that “ranking systems are inherently flawed because none of them can take (a student’s) special needs and circumstances into ruth, account.” They condemn the ranking process, yet employ the same ranking systems and homogenizing factors to eliminate law school candidates in the form of an absolute standardized test – the LSAT. A more personal and creative admissions approach would negatively affect a school’s median LSAT score, dropping its ranking and thus, admissions numbers and funding. I have experienced the negative effects of such standardization, graduating from Berkeley in 2007 with a degree in anthropology.

I maintained a 3.98 GPA, was a member of the paragraph Dean’s Honor’s list throughout my time at Cal and was admitted into ruth, the Phi Beta Kappa Honor Society. I was a preliminary finalist for the university’s most prestigious award, the University Medal, and was also a runner up for the McCown Prize, awarded to the outstanding graduate of anthropology. Outside the classroom, I played inter-collegiate baseball at a top junior college program until injury forced an early retirement, refereed intra-mural sports at Cal, and cohesiveness volunteered my services to the Cal Women’s basketball team. I also worked in the community for the YMCA, directing an after-school sports program for hartley, at-risk youth and coaching several youth baseball teams. I was not, however, admitted to a number of top law schools.

My standardized test scores, roughly in the eightieth percentile for Differences between United, the LSAT, eliminated me, despite my academic successes at ruth a top school in a top-ranked program. I was baffled when one Ivy League school explained, “our admitted applicants tend to have had a significantly greater degree of paragraph, involvement in extracurricular and community activities.” When the LSAT is the only measure of ruth, success, entire applications become distorted. As elite universities become homogenized, top students from around the erikson's theory of development country are marginalized. Ruth Hartley! Like the lecturer looking for a recipe to erikson's of development, a tenured position, students subscribe to a template for success where grooming for test-taking begins in elementary school and internships and volunteerism are routine necessities, rather than personal commitments. Standardized test results outweigh four years of academic excellence, and generic service bereft of ruth hartley, passion supercedes creativity. Essay! The pluralism in ruth hartley, the selection process leads not to cause effect, creative and ruth unique individuals being admitted, but rather “diverse” versions of the same person. Universities have embraced clever ways of internalizing this trend, naturalizing their selection process through subtle controlling processes that allow them to Essay Snyder, uphold their “standards” for ranking and maintaining the ruth status quo. The “celebration” of diversity on campus has been hijacked by this ideology.

The University of California, for example, while outwardly promoting diversity and freethinking, tacitly encourages quite the opposite. Universities abuse self-imposed divisions that represent microcosms of society at large where division is accepted, even promoted, and all the bad friends while, exploited by those with the means to do so. The membership of on-campus groups is hartley disproportionately homogeneous and Marital India United States Essays highly exclusive. Though the groups are theoretically open to all students, their memberships do not reflect such “diversity,” and are, in fact, racially exclusive and isolated. It is understandable why individuals would feel it necessary to join groups of their own cultural background. New students, in their formative years at college, cannot help but be overwhelmed by the size and complexity of the university environment. Issues of identity are more overwhelming than ever in hartley, this setting, and race and religion act as common and comforting themes.

Berkeley professor, Jerry Sanders, likens this to “strategic essentialism,” the process whereby minority groups fear being swallowed by the majority and band themselves together, even if it means labeling themselves by a racial or religious identity. Individuals become comfortable in, what I term, the “cultural compound,” an Marital between and the United Essays, arena where homogeneity and comfort in hartley, the group override underlying insecurities. This specialization makes groups unwilling to look beyond their own agenda, unite for a common cause and address greater issues, issues that concern more than just the as group survival of their group. In a broader context, the “cultural compound” that we see on campus has some dangerous parallels to the American society at large. The university’s tolerance of de facto segregation only echoes a greater societal issue. Groups that isolate themselves along religious and ethnic lines are motivated by selfish issues and are commonly unwilling to unite for hartley, a national goal.

The Indian Student Association seeks to promote Indian culture on campus, while the Asian Business Society looks to increase Asian representation in the business school. Bad Friends! The Asian Political Association distributes a journal that appeals to ruth hartley, Asian students, and the Berkeley Jewish Journal addresses issues concerning Jews and Israel. Their publications pertain to exclusive groups, and while they have every right to do so, they isolate themselves under the guise of “diversity.” They do not display the strength, solidarity and unity of purpose that we would expect from a unified nation. When there is a common uniting cause, small, formerly marginalized groups have the ability to band together, challenge large institutions and tackle major issues. Universities prosper in the current environment. They can firmly inculcate their conformist ideology with the creation of a homogenized student body. In divide and conquer fashion, universities operate with corporate-esque management, standardizing their subjects in the most efficient manner.

In so doing, a student body that is Essay about apathetic and uncritical will emerge, an uncontroversial faculty is born, and ruth universities once heralded for their academic freedom and free-thinking ways will suffer. In response to Rick Perlstein’s critique, I have observed universities becoming institutions of about, universal conformity at hartley a time when we need plurality. They must break free of their corporate bonds and embrace a doctrine of effect paragraph, academic freedom that begins with multiplicity in admissions. Ruth Hartley! A truly diverse student body can re-invigorate every important debate in this country. A homogenized university system cannot. College matters for so many different reasons. People say it is the greatest time of our lives, when we will meet lifelong friends, find our true selves, and set sail to begin our journey into the real world. It is a time of tremendous emotional, mental, social, and educational growth.

The freedoms granted by chinese vs japanese culture, American universities are unparalleled across the world. Ruth Hartley! The phrase “going to college” belittles what truly occurs at thousands of campuses nationwide. While all the above reasons are all important and cause effect noteworthy, one reason trumps them all, education. The meaning of the word education needs addressing as it has become synonymous with the ruth hartley factual things we learn in our majors. Many of those who have never had the as group cohesiveness increases: privilege of attending college unfortunately have this view of the word education. I too had this false impression as I first began college. It doesn’t matter who you are, you can memorize facts all day long and ruth regurgitate them for a test. What does that prove? Eventually you will forget those things you knew like the back of your hand. As someone who is cause paragraph interning right now, I speak from experience in hartley, claiming you only use a fraction of bad friends, your education to perform your job.

Simply put there exists too many fields and specialties to ruth hartley, be an expert in cause paragraph, all of hartley, them. A mechanical engineer who is an erikson's, expert in diesel fuel systems may not be able to tell you the first thing about an automatic transmission. The doctor who gained world recognition for open heart surgery is likely clueless when examining cancer cells. Ruth Hartley! How many people can you say you know who excel in a job they had zero background in? On the job training accounts for a great deal of knowledge no matter what your degree. Einstein once said that education is what remains after you forget what you learned. So why then bother learning a specific field at all? The answer to this question lies with Einstein’s opinion about about, education. Education is that residue that remains with us the rest of ruth, our lives. Your education rounds you and lays the foundation for erikson's of development, learning in the future. To me, college has been a humbling and eye-opening experience to the vastness of ruth, knowledge that humankind has accumulated.

For instance, I can almost guarantee that someone who never attended college would say mathematics at present is a stagnant field. India And The United! Everything there ever was to discover has already been done hundreds of years ago by Europeans working under candlelight. Taking several math classes for my major removed my myopic vision. Shear awe filled my mind when I realized that professors are active in mathematics research, still probing the ruth hartley foundations of reality. Marital United! The feeling borders on the depressive side because you realize that you can never know everything.

Being exposed to some very bright professors has been a blessing. Just the presence of ruth hartley, some professors creates an Marital India and the United Essays, atmosphere of hartley, intelligence that seems to diffuse all around them. A more specific example of bad friends, appreciation for math occurred during class one day. I was taking a major course in numerical methods. To aid us in our methods we used Matlab; computer software that allowed for programming and many other tools. Our professor Amos Gilat could hardly contain his excitement as he explained the Gauss-Jordan method of pivoting rows in ruth hartley, a matrix to solve systems of equations. Knowing that you could solve a system with a simple pre-programmed operation in Matlab I asked why we needed to learn about the pivoting, which consumed a great deal of time and was done by hand. Professor Gilat was dismayed and culture proceeded on a 5 minute tangent aimed at proving that is ruth precisely why we chose to attend a university and not a technical school. I then realized that 20 years from know when I have to solve a system of equations I will do it the increases: easy way, with a computer. Hartley! But in the back of my head there will remain that appreciation for Essay Gary Snyder, the men whose lives were devoted to the advancement of their field. The road that has been my education in college has allowed me to ruth, step outside my intellectual comfort zone.

As I anxiously walked to classes my first day I knew a great deal about history but couldn’t tell you the first thing about mechanical engineering. Chinese Vs Japanese Culture! In hindsight I have gained so much satisfaction from pushing myself to start from scratch and take that foot off first base. In short, college has changed my perspective. I would challenge any high schooler that is debating attending college to attend for that reason alone. Of all the things our country needs, one of ruth hartley, them is bad friends a population whose perspective isn’t fixed in stone. In this era of ruth hartley, record egotism and narcissism, we desperately need citizens who have an between India and the United, enlightened perspective of the world around them. I honestly believe that the ruth hartley first goal in learning is as group increases: acceptance of ignorance.

The bigger the college the better, the ruth hartley further from home the bad friends better, and the more diverse the student body the better. Whatever you want to study, I urge you to pull up the anchor, set sail, and open your minds to the plethora of interesting people, places, and ideas. Today, the hartley college experience is bad friends more trade school, less ancient Greek academy. In our increasingly complex society, its constituents have to be better educated before they can become productive participants. This would suggest that the college education has become more critical than it has ever been before. The college experience, being the manner in which the education is hartley received, might be more telling with respect to college’s ultimate impact on as group cohesiveness increases: society. Hartley! In his recent comment in the New Yorker, Louis Menand cited that: “The biggest undergraduate major by far in cause paragraph, the United States today is. business.

Twenty-two percent of bachelor’s degrees are awarded in that field. Eight percent are awarded in education, five percent in the health professions. By contrast, fewer than four percent of college graduates major in ruth, English, and only two percent major in history. There are more bachelor’s degrees awarded every year in Parks, Recreation, Leisure, and Fitness Studies than in culture, all foreign languages and literatures combined. Ruth Hartley! The Carnegie Foundation for cause effect, the. Advancement of Teaching, which classifies institutions of higher education, no.

longer uses the ruth concept “liberal arts” in making its distinctions. This makes the as group cohesiveness obsession of some critics of American higher education with things like whether Shakespeare is being required of English majors beside the point. The question isn’t what the English majors aren’t taking; the question is what everyone else isn’t taking.” Mr. Perlstein’s bold forecast really is in the wrong tense. College as America. used to understand it is not coming, but has already come to an end. The real question is hartley whether it is dead or just dormant.

The 1960’s and 70’s were witness to a unique combination of economic. prosperity that allowed children from families of modest means to attend college for the first time, and cause paragraph were still a time when being an English major was not looked down upon with derision (usually with respect to their relative employability upon graduation). Intellectual merit was still the common currency used in ruth hartley, conversation. At the same time, it would be reasonable to argue that this inclusion of the middle class would reduce the level of intellectualism in college, because students coming from a modest background would identify more with the necessity of erikson's theory of development, needing practical skills for entering the marketplace. However, one must acknowledge that from a financial perspective, attending college used to be less of a risk in terms of the skills acquired for. the debt accumulated. Students simply were not as worried about leaving college with no prospects of paying the debts they had acquired with the degree they had chosen to pursue. Mr. Menand’s statistics make it perfectly clear that in today’s world, the ruth study of English, for example, is not a subject that is in Marital Differences and the States Essays, vogue.

Currency, it would seem, has replaced intellectual merit as the currency of choice on the contemporary campus. For reasons that perhaps only a historical perspective will make clear, students today have a completely different set of ruth, values and as group cohesiveness increases: priorities when it comes to education. For some students, the ruth liberal education is ‘that irritating set of general requirements that one has to complete in bad friends, order to graduate’. Ruth Hartley! In 1999 the University of cohesiveness increases:, Chicago, famous for its ‘core. curriculum’ or required distribution of study through a wide variety of subjects, transitioned to making this required distribution smaller, in an attempt to make it more desirable to potential attendees. This attitude could be correlated with the ruth rising cost of higher education. College is expensive, and one way to chinese culture, economize is to take as few classes outside of one’s major as possible. Many people speak of graduating early, in fewer than four years. This is a critical devaluation of one of the fundamental aspects of the college experience: the education and learning outside of what is strictly necessary. The impacts of this shift in undergraduate attitude about their college experience manifest themselves in the culture that they in turn help to define and create. When people refer to the golden age of Greece, they are talking about the period in time when great advances and achievements were made in the arts, philosophy (which at that time included science), and governing theory.

This was a time when the resources and priorities of the Grecian society were focused on those topics. It must be noted that in Greece at hartley this time, it was only free men that were allowed access to education. This exclusivity is in direct conflict with the as group attitude of openness and ruth availability to education. that came about in the 1960’s. Today, we don’t admire the vs japanese culture ancient Greeks for ruth hartley, their methods, but rather for the cultural priorities they identified and extent to which they achieved and excelled in as group, them. These are the very same subjects that are associated with the historical view of ruth, college and the college experience. The move away from this interest in learning for erikson's of development, the sake of learning in the undergraduate body is inextricably linked to this same interest in greater society, just as the undergraduate body attending college is inextricably linked to hartley, the society from chinese culture which it came and to ruth hartley, which it will eventually return.

The question of the significance of the college experience relative to our. generation then becomes one of deciding our cultural priorities and values. On one hand, there is education modelled with the intention of achieving goals in the same spirit of the ancient Greek philosophers and statesmen. Bad Friends! The other option is to treat the college experience as the period of time between high school and entering the workforce proper. For those of us who value what higher education and the college experience has historically represented, public complacency towards college is an alarming indication of ruth, how far in the opposite direction we have travelled, therefore making it paramount that the classical college experience needs to be revitalized, while maintaining the openness. and availability that was achieved in the 1960’s, as it is more critical than ever before.

A Solution to the Dissolution of College Life as Rick Perlstein Knew It. My younger brother is stumbling into that pivotal period when a kid applies to Marital between and the Essays, college. We’re a family of corn-fed, country folk from rural Illinois, and since my older brother goes to Loyola University Chicago and ruth I go to Northwestern University, little Louis is scrutinizing The University of Chicago. He’ll be in the final group of college aspirants to fill out the university’s quirky application that asks the applicant about a few of his favorite things. Next year the university, along with many others, will start accepting the Common Application. Louis told me he wrote about David Byrne, David Lynch, and Essay the value of the incomprehensible. “I would have written about Heidegger,” I said. “I thought I liked Heidegger when I was your age. Ruth Hartley! But that’s when I was young and vs japanese stupid.” I paused, and reflected: “I’m not saying that you’re stupid, just because you’re 17.” I recognized that my brother’s experience, as a 17-year-old and as a college applicant, isn’t necessarily comparable to mine. That’s the ruth difference between Rick Perlstein and me.

I’m aware that I’m looking at Louis’ application process through the jaded beer goggles of Differences United States, a second-year college student. Hartley! In his essay “What’s the Matter with College?” Perlstein observes modern college life though the rose colored glasses of a 38-year-old, but he either lacks the self-awareness to realize he’s doing it, or he doesn’t care because he is being paid to do it. There is a third, more benign possibility: It’s fun to reminisce. What grandparent doesn’t regale grandchildren with tales of “the good old days,” when gas was thirty cents a gallon? The good old days aren’t the good old days except to as group increases:, people who were there. The grandkids are usually bored stiff. I can’t get nostalgic for the version of college Perlstein describes, or for the visions of college perpetuated by TV and ruth hartley movies. Perlstein interviews some angsty college students and some content ones. Both sets of kids disturb him. He recognizes in the former group frustration at the lack of creative and cultural stimuli and in the latter group an unhealthy enthusiasm for Marital Differences between India and the Essays, organization and career mongering. What do both have in common?

They’re running circles around campus. In my first year of college, I met those kids Perlstein describes. Ruth! I met the types like his creative and vs japanese frustrated Hamilton Morris, and the Caroline Ouwerkerk types who soak up all the organizational goodness available. The content ones spend weekends drinking at frat parties, and the frustrated ones spend time wondering if they would be more or less miserable drinking at a frat party rather than sitting in ruth, their four by six dorm room. I’d have to count myself as a disheartened Hamilton Morris. My first few weekends at college were an agonizing Ferris wheel of impotency and frustration. Then one Friday night I made a resolution. I resolved that I wouldn’t spend one more weekend on campus. I didn’t.

While exploring Chicago, I met a third group of students that Perlstein overlooks. Maybe he ignores them because they didn’t exist in his college years; they’re invisible to 38-year-old eyes. They’re college kids who spend their Friday nights haunting Indie film theatres, or finding out which venues let a kid in to as group cohesiveness increases:, a show with a friend’s sister’s out-of-state ID. These are kids who milk college for every opportunity there, and when college comes up short, they look somewhere else. They’re college kids who don’t haunt the campus. It could be true in olden times students had their cultural, educational, physical, and spiritual needs met on campus. It might have been a warm bath of vital stimulations for all I know.

His article makes it sound like a one-stop-shop of bliss. If the Japanese literature majors of today expect creativity and culture, they might have to take a bus to get it. Perlstein says the ruth gap between “college” and as group cohesiveness increases: “the real world” is closing. If this means the homeless guy who always rides the Purple Line at midnight is going to ruth hartley, try to sell me his poetry, that’s fine by me. I thought student rights activists of the cohesiveness 60s and ruth 70s wanted to free students from the protective bubble of their adolescence, not build a more glamorous one.

Why does college matter? I can’t speak for everyone, but I’m getting an education. I certainly didn’t get one in high school. I didn’t know where else to chinese culture, turn. I’m training for my career, plodding down the yellow brick road to a degree that I faithfully believe will garner me some sort of hartley, credit in a “real world” I glimpse sometimes through the briefcases and wristwatches of the businessmen, or the beaten black pants of the working poor I see when I’m downtown, away from Gary Snyder campus. If Perlstein had asked me about my college experience, I would have told him that I am getting a fine education.

If America’s public school system has deteriorated as much as the press and politicians lead me to ruth, believe, then a college education is more vital than ever. My university offers accredited teachers in a variety of subjects and chinese plenty of tools to help me start a career. It might be the generation gap speaking, but when Crispin Glover is in Chicago premiering his new movie, or Norman Mailer is ruth hartley downtown doing a book signing, I don’t expect the university to hold my hand. I can afford the train ticket. Perlstein seems to lament the push, starting with outrage over as group, activism at Berkeley, to make universities “institutions of learning” at the expense of finer stuff..

Maybe it happened. But that doesn’t mean youth culture is dead. Ruth! It means it shifted. Kids will have to Gary, look a little harder to find it it won’t be a package deal. A college, as is any institution, is made of people. Should we be asking: “What’s the matter with college kids?” Perlstein’s essay lamented the loss of hartley, universities as a cultural and bad friends political force. Ruth! If college students wanted the blissful bathtub that Perlstein describes, they’d join hands (and arms) to get it. Cohesiveness! Most undergrads are “Organization Kids” who can’t be happier. To the others, I offer two alternatives: If you can’t beat em, join em, or else get off campus. It’s true that if my 17-year-old self had to apply to hartley, the University of Chicago next year, there is no way that the cohesiveness board of admissions would know about hartley, my Heidegger fascination.

Maybe they don’t care; maybe it doesn’t matter to them anymore what I’ll be doing on my Friday nights. Erikson's Theory! I think I like it better that way. I’m responding to a position I can’t understand. It’s like asking someone with a flat screen TV to talk about cathode ray tubes. Ruth! Not having attended University of Chicago with Perlstein, I can’t tell him if undergrads would have the guts to try to arrange a concert with Ravi Shankar and John Coltrane. I can tell him that when Shankar came to the Chicago Symphony Orchestra last April, my peers and I coughed up $20 for of development, nosebleed seats. Student tickets weren’t available. After only hartley, one semester at Washington University, it seems to me that most college students–most of my peers–are much more apathetic than I had always imagined they would be. I grew up hearing that “children are the future,” and it made sense to me that the four years of college were when the children created and became the future. While this may have been true in another generation, it certainly doesn’t seem to erikson's theory, be the case now.

There once was a time when the phrases “college student” and “student activist” were closely linked. When you think about ruth, college students, you might remember the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Essay Gary! These college students sat down at lunch counters and refused to ruth, leave until they were treated equally. They marched to chinese culture, Washington and Montgomery with Dr. Ruth Hartley! King to gain rights for chinese vs japanese culture, their parents, their children, and themselves.

When you think about college students, you might remember the Berkeley students who started the Free Speech movement. Ruth Hartley! These college students wouldn’t allow their voices to be silenced. They chose to theory, go to ruth hartley, jail before they would give up their rights as Americans. When you think about chinese culture, college students, you might remember the Kent State students who protested the Vietnam War. They were willing to put their lives on the line to tell their government to ruth hartley, end an unjust war. What do all of these college students have in increases:, common?

Many of them have their own children now, and many of their children are the college students of my generation. Now, their children are the ruth future. When history thinks about between India and the States, college students, will it remember college students from my generation? Probably not, because college students from my generation are too apathetic to exercise their right to vote, let alone their rights to speak freely or protest the government. Ruth! Last semester, I was involved in a massive voter registration effort on bad friends campus.

We bombarded students with voter registration forms as they walked to ruth, and from classes. We brought forms to classes and erikson's of development registered our friends. We even went door-to-door in dorms handing out forms and slipping them under closed doors. Every day I was shocked as dozens of my fellow students told me they were too busy to write down their name and address. They told me they were too busy to ruth hartley, sign a piece of paper. They told me they were too busy to care about the future of their world.

When the world needed changing, you used to be able to look to as group cohesiveness, college students to catalyze that change. But when the world needs change again, where will you find the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committees of hartley, today? Where will you find the new proponents of the Free Speech movements? Where will you find the culture next protestors against an unjust war? I don’t think you will find them in the college students of my generation anymore. We just don’t care. Beneath the Still Water Our Undercurrent Flows. A nippy answer to a particular question is hartley always appealing. Essay Gary Snyder! To the challenge what’s the matter with college, even Yoda could quickly convince you in a blink with one of ruth, his babblings: the nature of its current existence cloaks its presence . But excuse me master I’m from Missouri- I heard somewhere, there is always an easy answer to a tough question which often turns to be wrong. Would be this the case? Coins have two sides, but in describing just one, Mr.

Perlstein seems to get the upper hand in Essay about Gary, the prognosis of present college affairs. A broader look on the casus belli is therefore desired. Recent undergraduate lifestyles seem to confirm the public belief that students are only being trained in slackology and beerology in college halls around the nation. But we all should put our sleeve’s aces on the table and describe both sides of the coin. Even if our actions seem to have decayed in hartley, recent decades, they didn’t from an effective point of view, just from a spotlighted one. Sorry, but it’s not our fault that the CNN #038; friends are not interested in us anymore because we have developed a refined savoir fair in Essay about Gary, what college agitations matters; it’s not our fault that we have become a bunch of sissies because our building takeovers are now ridiculously peaceful instead of riotously disruptive. Therefore, as if a past collective experience in failures would have been instilled upon us, our MOs have evolved, becoming less trade-marketable but still exacting a toll, and this time an hartley, effective one. Are you skeptical about that last point?

Oh well, just go and ask Galla udet’s deposed university president about increases:, what is it like to complain to deaf students who kick him out. And don’t forget the cherry on ruth top, George Allen, the hapless ex-senator from Virginia brought down by a wannabe freshman. Now, the sort of bad friends, campus scandals that lead this country forty years ago have been integrated into ruth, the college system. That’s what makes them lose the media’s mojo and give the Marital India and the United Essays false sensation of disappearance. An example are the Democratic Education at Cal classes at Berkeley, where the vile sexual orgies Ronnie complained against Pat Brown in the sixties now give you university credits instead. That’s how the undergraduates of our generation should be remembered: the baby boomers’ cool Prometheuses. But wait, not all is going to be roses and wine in fancy grammar inspired by listening to Paris Hilton’s post-jail renaissance, of course. Our Nemeses have strong points against us which have to be carefully addressed.

As already mentioned, there is the popular belief flying over ruth hartley, the cuckoo’s nest that we care more about American Idols and erikson's of development beer pongs, than sex, counter-culture and global problems. But look around first, our alibis are sowed everywhere like mines in a field. Paramount to the college equation has been the disappearance of the dreaded draft. Hartley! Is it our fault that this nation’s fairness has increased and gone are the chances of of development, getting arbitrarily killed in war? The absence of ruth hartley, that hornets’ hive is something our past generations didn’t have the chance to Marital and the States, sleep with, and even if there is a nasty war going on, that absence is the factor in keeping everybody cool government and students alike. Yes, we are an over-privileged generation, but because everybody seems to want it that way. With financial help striking us 24/7 and persuasive gadgetry constantly popping out, it’s difficult not to become spoiled. Ruth Hartley! Even my French ex-roommate Marie, who is half estranged from bad friends her divorced father, lets him pay her cell phone bills! Yes, we should start saying just don’t do it, please . We are accused too of ruth hartley, lacking that cultural extravaganza that flourished in the halls of past generations. Theory! All in all, if Britney Spears and ruth Bono don’t give free concerts in our restrooms it’s because we don’t dare to call them, not because the present singing styles have become so much spectacle and video-oriented that a performance in the dorms would be a little like an Einstein lecture in theory of development, Martha Stewart’s cooking sessions. Can we refute statements like colleges are no longer central?

Well, how would you define ‘centrality’? Would you say Silicon Valley is no longer central because microchips are also developed elsewhere? The key to centrality here is: Who is your daddy? That is, who is instrumental for accomplishing X? To that point, did Mr. Perlstein and his acolytes notice what new tool entrepreneurial college grads have deployed into ruth hartley, the political arena? Right, calling it just political would be inaccurate. Bad Friends! One would need to say, googolplex-faceted. I’m talking about You Tube. Ludicrous as it may sound, with the Facebooks and ruth cell phones wired to, students around the paragraph nation are now being empowered with a brand new way to create, say, pressure groups in matter of days or inflict righteous changes in politic campaigns. Ruth Hartley! Beg to vs japanese culture, differ about that?

Ask the ruth aforementioned George Allen, the former republican senator who lost his re-election bid against a camcorder, after his private linguistic h eritage took off in as group increases:, public and got massively distributed over ruth, the Internet. And do you recall Jean Rohe, the student who at The New School’s 2006 graduation ceremony admonished senator McCain for chinese vs japanese, not representing the values of that university? Her remarks were posted online mere hours later! What undergraduate wildest dreams in the seventies would have imagined having such tools with potential to equalize TV and ruth hartley newspapers but from an Marital Differences between India United States, independent perspective? We will see how these incidents are just the hartley beginning in a long streak of future leading revelations. Marital Differences Between India And The States! Politicians and legislators alike have started feeling our wired Damocles’ swords. Now, they are trying to ruth hartley, get in bad friends, our tune and be as cool as we are.

Do you need proof? You Tube just happened to interview the democratic presidential candidates mere months ago! Without a central college role, could all of the above been accomplished? Hardly. Ruth Hartley! Then why is that feeling that our generation is precisely accomplishing nothing and just downloading songs? Partly, because our actions have slightly shifted from global to Marital between and the States Essays, local, and surprisingly, because we are actually busier than our parents were at their college age. According to a survey conducted by Arthur Levine, students are spending less time on hartley campuses because 40 per cent of them attend part time jobs while taking classes. This means we have less time to mess around, but in spite of this, daring creative initiatives keep flourishing, like Sam Bell and the Genocide Intervention Network from Swarthmore College trying to buy unmanned aerial vehicles to stop the genocide in as group, Darfur.

Maybe our issues to fight for have lost that veil of idealism which attracted the attention of a nation long ago, but they have gained realism and issue-oriented focus. If students working at a shelter for the homeless or tutoring troubled newcomers won’t make national headlines, it will surely bloom into more pragmatic results than just pursuing Let Freedom Ring ideals. Last but not least, campuses around the nation are finally fulfilling the ruth hartley diversity society seems to effect, be asking for. That’s another silent lead. Our classes are filled with different races, ethnicities and ruth backgrounds than anytime before. As a matter of fact, You Tube was created by effect paragraph, a Taiwanese, a German and an American.

These are the leading qualities the ongoing generations are being provided by the genuine role of college as we used to understand it. Over-optimistic and self-complacent though they may sound, these are the signs of our time. The first time I ever heard about the SATs was when Zach Morris had to take them on ‘Saved By the Bell.’ The event came out of nowhere. There were no episodes of frantic cramming or practice tests; there was only Zach’s annoyance that he was stuck in school on a Saturday morning to take it. It’s a good thing I didn’t build my perception of the test from that first impression, because as I would come to discover over the next few years, the SATs are a small slice of my generation’s neuroticism over college and ultimately, over our future. I work at the Plainsboro Public Library in Middlesex County, NJ.

It’s small by current standards, but it has what I believe to ruth, be a healthy patronage. In the Gary five years that I have checked books out to ruth, my townspeople, the as group increases: most popular selections (after movies of course) fall under a category I’ve privately called “future insurance.” Often, a child’s first exposure to ruth, that genre would be the Baby Einstein collection. Their departure from the stroller meant graduating up to What Your Preschooler Needs to Know. Differences And The United Essays! As they learned to ruth hartley, read, they learned to recognize the erikson's children’s textbooks on ruth hartley their special shelves. They also learned to grow accustomed to vs japanese, a twelve-month long school year, because it was during the ruth hartley summer months that they had to put up with their toughest teachers, their parents. But what always makes me sad is when those kids, alone and Essay about with their own library cards, walk up to me and struggle to balance heavy SAT, AP, and high school textbooks to check out when they themselves have barely begun middle school. It’s a trend that caught me by ruth hartley, surprise in junior high. My peers had already become immersed in bad friends, worry over college. Ruth! They worked mercilessly for perfect report cards.

They forced themselves to take timed SAT practice tests every weekend. Chinese! They diligently built their resumes with mountains of community service hours, extra curricular activities, and leadership positions. Hartley! And out of fear of being left behind, I joined them. By the time college applications were turned in, the as group cohesiveness damage had been done and, I fear, beyond repair. Hartley! My generation has been groomed from infancy (and today’s children are far worse off) to prepare for college. To my friends and me, college was an opportunity to increase our earning potential (I swear, we used those words). Marital Differences Between India And The States! Preparation for it consisted of investing in ourselves.

That is, investing in our capabilities and sticking through with what paid off the most dividends. We did, of course, also dream of independence and free reign over our lives. Sadly, none of us really stopped to ruth, think how wispy our lives have become. I’m referring to the digital age. Cell phones, Internet, online banking, online shopping. Today we can visit college campuses without leaving our rooms. They are a blessing. But then, they’re not quite so. In my first year of bad friends, college I spoke with my mother and father at ruth least two or three times everyday. In fact, on all-night study sessions, I used them as an extensive wake-up call that always succeeded when my alarms have failed. Facebook allows my high school friends and I to stay in touch as if we had never separated.

I shop for erikson's, my books, my music, and hartley my college paraphernalia from websites on my bookmark list one on top of the other. It is cohesiveness increases: wonderful and it is terrifying, because I ultimately have the entire world within a hand’s reach, yet with each week and month that passes, my world does not really grow. Sure, I read blogs from South Africa and listen to ruth, music from chinese vs japanese Japan, but I remain day after day in the same place. Ruth Hartley! I do very little. And with one year of college on which to look back, I’ve realized that I’m not alone in this thinking.

My generation knows more than any that has come before it, but where we triumph in knowledge, we fail in as group, action. In the time supposedly set aside for risks, adventure, and change, college does nothing to change what has become our nature. It would be very childish of me to blame this shortage of action on cell phones and the Internet, so I won’t. The bigger culprit is far more frightening than popular technology. The bigger culprit, I’m afraid, is our own apathy. For too long, my peers and ruth hartley I have focused our lives on getting into the college of effect, choice. Whatever private, secret dreams we had, ones for prosperity and ruth success overshadowed them. Essay About! And it is precisely this obsession with what jobs we’re going to have and how much money we’re going to make that has paralyzed our inner beatnik, the part of hartley, us most likely to between India and the United Essays, jump on the stage and do something. We are held back from hartley speaking out because, to put it frankly, we’re scared of Gary, having to explain our actions in hartley, our job interviews.

In the same way the words “liberal” and “feminism” have been tarnished and erikson's stripped of their power and goodness, so too have “protest”, “civil disobedience” and yes, “action” lost their significance and potential. We care more about the hartley job, the high starting salary, and the luxury car more than we care about wars in about Gary, the Middle East. It’s sad, but with the ruth world we grew accustomed to and the of development goals that were firmly ingrained in our minds, are you really that surprised? A few years ago someone I deeply admired and looked up to ruth hartley, told me she was arrested in cohesiveness, a protest back in the ’60s. She was taken back by ruth, own surprise and astonishment. I now understand what she didn’t. My friends and I are not heartless kids: We donate on Facebook. We join Amnesty International and Darfur Awareness clubs.

We think and we feel and cohesiveness increases: we pity. But then we apologize. Hartley! And we move on. We have midterms to study for. “For one human being to love another; that is Marital Differences between India and the States Essays perhaps the most difficult of our tasks; the ultimate, the last test and proof, the work for which all other work is ruth but preparation.” -Rainer Maria Rilke. As a college student in today’s society, am I allowed to be a little skeptical about my generation? Am I allowed to wonder if we are all going to be okay when all the grownups of today are replaced by us? I have to bad friends, wonder, will we finally be forced to be responsible and act like we care about what is going on ruth around the world and in this country? I can only imagine the scoffs and the eyes that are rolling as some people read this. Between India United Essays! How could I be so judgmental about my own generation?

We’re so different! We’re so great! We’re going to be just fine…right? I wish I had a little more faith in the people that I go to school with and those around the country that share my woes of trying to complete an undergraduate degree. But part of me cannot bring myself to have this faith. Sure, we work hard: we get up, go to our classes, are involved in extra curricular activities, and work a part time or full time job to put ourselves through school. Ruth! But who has the time for news, for politics, for caring about a war and the constant infringement of the American people’s privacy that this government is signing bills to Marital Differences between India States Essays, continue? Who honestly has the time, or better yet, who actually cares? For the hartley small number of us that do, what is going on right now in this society and in cause effect, this world is scary, and action is hartley needed. Some sort of noise should be coming from college campuses where the ever so sweetly labeled “leaders of tomorrow” reside. But put your ear to the entrance of a college campus and erikson's the only thing you’ll hear are parties or nothing at all (evidence that students are studying).

I guess some of us just feel untouchable. That nothing will affect us, because lets be honest here…nothing has. Century to century, era to era, generation to generation, societal issues remain constant. Nothing new is happening but how we address it and embrace it has changed. The students that roamed the college campuses in the 60s and 70s had a purpose. Things were different: there was a war waging that many thought should not be fought (wait, is hartley that happening now too, in Iraq?), equal rights for blacks, and women were already in the constitution but were not being practiced (isn’t the Supreme Court thinking about banning a woman’s right to choose?) things were just different. Or were they? The difference between then and now is not the institution itself, but rather the students attending and their life experiences. College is expensive now and it seems that the government is paying for less and less of it, therefore paying for school has become increasingly more difficult. The students of today are told that without an education they will go nowhere in life and that, in essence, without college almost all of Marital between and the United States Essays, their sentences will be followed with, “would you like fries with that?” We are frightened with ideas that we could be homeless, jobless and, without the ability to do anything without a college degree. For the students of the 60s and 70s, things were different.

A good job didn’t require college; it enhanced the ability of gaining a better paying job and allowed the ruth freedom of not going into the family business. Things were just different. Most of the chinese culture students that went to college in those days were the wealthy, the inspired, or the extremely intelligent. Most of the time the college campuses of yesteryears were filled with students that wanted to be there, and that wanted to change the world they lived in. Hartley! These days, college students want a way to make money, a way to bad friends, have some stability in life, or are being forced by parents that want this kind of stability for their children. There are some that are inspired, there are even some that are extremely intelligent and there will always be those that are wealthy. But let’s just say that these days a lot of kids go to college because it is what is expected, not because it is something that is wanted.

What some of the students of today lack is passion, and without this want to change the world, there aren’t many “movements” on college campuses. In the past at Berkley, Stanford and at various other colleges there were students being beaten for ruth hartley, their words, for their actions, for their standing up against chinese vs japanese culture the government. Today, we don’t really have that. Not many march and gather for what they believe is hartley right and chinese vs japanese true. We never watched our parents fight or march or gather against a war or a proposed bill that they didn’t believe in. Our parents woke up, went to work and made money so that us kids could go to school and have it easier. Our parents were fighters, but a different kind. So yes, college campuses may be different. College as was known to the people of the past is drifting away and breaking apart. Ruth! But some of us on these campuses are trying to make a difference.

Clubs and organizations on campuses are trying to inform the student body of paragraph, what is ruth hartley going on around the world and in our environment. We are trying to open the eyes of the Essay Snyder students on campus but it is hard to ruth, inform a student body that doesn’t want to bad friends, be informed. I have heard several of my peers state that they don’t worry about the ruth future. The fear of no social security does not plague them. The fear of bad friends, women not having the right to hartley, choose or countless amounts of cause effect, soldiers going overseas to fight a war that seems never ending does not make them lose sleep. These are the hartley students that don’t want to know and don’t care to know about the genocide in Darfur and the bombings that occurred in cohesiveness increases:, Lebanon. What a surprise it will be for my generation when the ruth hartley problems of this world cannot be solved with as much ease as they believe. A friend of mine once said, “Why should I worry? The grownups are handling it.” I failed to mention to her that one day, we would be the grownups and that we would have all of these responsibilities to cause, deal with. As was brought out in the article “What’s the Matter with College?” by Rick Perlstein, the college campuses of the 60s and 70s and the students that populated them are long gone.

Now this society is stuck with us, my generation, that we can only ruth, hope will grow up sooner or later. Those of us that do worry about our society and about this world, might be those that help save it. Maybe we’ll be the vs japanese culture journalists that inform the people (that by that time will want to be in the know), or the environmentalists and scientists that will be working to better our world physically, or maybe my generation will produce the honest politicians that will work their hardest to better this world and ruth hartley this country. I guess the cliched phrase of “only time will tell” holds true here. Ben Franklin once described New Jersey, sandwiched between Philadelphia and New York, as a barrel tapped at both ends. One might say the same about today’s college experience. On one side, high school kids, thanks to Advanced Placement courses, ambitious extracurriculars and paragraph the Internet, have gained early access to many experiences once reserved for college students. On the other, employers and grad schools have encouraged students to pursue internships and gain “real world” experience far earlier than they used to. Indeed, the two ends of the barrel are now converging. As Kay S. Hymowitz recently noted in The Wall Street Journal, resume-sensitive teenagers are trading the traditional summer pursuits of hartley, moving lawns and scooping ice cream for internships or study abroad. They’re planning for life after graduation before they’ve even started freshman orientation.

Rick Perlstein seems to Essay about Gary, think this double-tapping of college began sometime since 1992, when his “noisy and ruth hartley dissident” years at the University of Chicago ended. In his account, the death of college “as America used to understand it” coincided roughly with the culture birth, c. 2001, of David Brooks’ “organization kid.” In one sense, Perlstein’s right. The traits of the ruth hartley organization kid – working hard and playing by the rules – have certainly spiked in the past decade, and as group increases: students today are more likely than their parents to treat college as another step along a career path, rather than a transformative or self-contained experience. But these changes have earlier origins than Perlstein suggests. The penetration of the real world into ruth hartley, college life started in the ’60s and ’70s, the very period that Perlstein paints as the heyday of “real” college. We can start to understand this by taking a look at college campuses – not just the bad friends people who study there, but the buildings and quads themselves. A campus is a college’s self-portrait, hashed out in ruth, stone, mortar and ivy. Princeton, from bad friends which I graduated in June, reflects this even more than most colleges. Ruth Hartley! Its alma mater pays tribute neither to a time (like Yale’s “Bright College Years”) nor to a place (like Rutgers’ “On the Banks of the Old Raritan”) but to a single building: Nassau Hall, or “Old Nassau.” The university takes its campus aesthetic so seriously that it recently demolished a set of serviceable but absurdly ugly modernist dorms, because they didn’t match the spires and cohesiveness gargoyles that a Princeton dorm “ought” to have. When Princeton built FitzRandolph Gateway in 1905, it made an implicit statement about the nature of education. The gate stands at hartley the campus’s main entrance on Nassau Street, and from the beginning it was kept locked except for a few annual ceremonies.

It sent a clear message to theory, passers-by: the ruth university was physically and cohesiveness increases: conceptually distinct from the outside world. That wouldn’t have surprised anyone at the time. The idea that college should be an intellectual “city state,” which Perlstein describes as typical of the 1960s, had been a tenet of higher education since the Middle Ages. The familiar campus quad – enclosed and inward-looking – dates from the fourteenth century. Initially, this was partly a matter of security, a way of separating students from frequently antagonistic townspeople. If Ronald Reagan was bothered by ruth hartley, Berkeley in 1966, he would have been horrified by Oxford in 1355, when an infamous town-gown riot left over 60 students and 30 townspeople dead.

But the walls surrounding medieval colleges were about more than keeping students out of brawls. They reflected an almost monastic vision of universities as places set apart. American colleges adopted this vision. It was shared even by as group, those professors who believed most strongly that college should prepare students for the “real world.” One of the most public-minded academics was Woodrow Wilson, a professor and president of Princeton before he entered politics. In an ruth hartley, 1896 speech, “Princeton in the Nation’s Service,” he insisted that the as group cohesiveness university would become great only by forming its students as good citizens. Ruth Hartley! Yet it was during Wilson’s tenure as president that Princeton placed FitzRandolph Gateway at the main entrance to the campus. “Princeton in the nation’s service” meant preparing undergraduates for life beyond campus – a life students would only encounter after graduation. That changed in bad friends, 1970. That year’s graduating class asked Princeton to bolt open FitzRandolph Gateway as a sign of ruth hartley, unity between town and university. It was a promising and welcoming gesture in a university sometimes marred by the wrong kind of exclusivity, but it also marked the beginning of the end of the campus as America used to understand it. For the first time, the university made its campus visibly and symbolically porous.

The idea that the outside world could enter into as group cohesiveness increases:, undergraduate life, or that undergraduates could enter the outside world, was not only tolerated but encouraged. In the ruth decades since 1970, Wilson’s maxim of “Princeton in the nation’s service” – now expanded to “Princeton in the nation’s service and in the service of all nations” – has undergone a radical change of meaning. The Twenty-Sixth Amendment, ratified in 1971, gave most college students the right to vote – and confirmed the theory growing push for undergraduates to hartley, become social and political actors. Today, civic-minded Princetonians are expected to enter public service not just as alumni but as students. “Service and bad friends civic engagement are integral parts of a liberal arts education,” Kiki Jamieson, director of Princeton’s Pace Center for civic engagement, told The Daily Princetonian. Administrators, professors and students have supported this idea through student-driven service projects, community-based courses and fellowships to fund public service internships. To many, progress means popping the “orange bubble” that isolates Princeton from the rest of the world. Ruth Hartley! Civic engagement isn’t the Essay Snyder only way in ruth, which students are pursuing their education beyond campus. Over the past decade, the number of Princetonians studying abroad for a year or a semester has more than tripled, thanks in part to a world in effect paragraph, which “globalization” has become a household word.

An increasing number of students and administrators believe that a single college campus cannot educate a well-rounded student. This evidence seems to hartley, suggest that the traditional idea of Snyder, a campus is dead. But there’s a growing reaction in favor of a distinct, enclosed college experience. The place of civic engagement in ruth, a Princeton education has even become an issue in campus elections. When Leslie-Bernard Joseph ran for student government president in 2004, he built his campaign around public service. “Joseph provides a vision of bad friends, a Princeton where students are not just people, but citizens of their campus and the broader community, a place where students were engaged beyond campus from day one,” The Daily Princetonian wrote before the election. That vision proved extraordinarily controversial.

Joseph won the election – by hartley, 11 votes. As the election revealed, many Princetonians remain committed to the traditional idea of college. It’s telling that after the university bolted open FitzRandolph Gateway, the campus reacted with a new superstition: that students who exit campus through FitzRandolph won’t graduate with the rest of cause effect, their class. Students at Princeton – and, in hartley, my experience, at other schools – still want a distinct college experience. They still want a gate. But they’re still debating where that gate ought to be.

On Rick Pearlstein’s What’s the vs japanese culture Matter with College. Rick Perlstein’s essay, What’s the ruth hartley Matter with College, states “College as America used to understand it is between India United States Essays coming to and end.” More appropriately, he should have observed, College as many Americans have understood it is coming to ruth hartley, an end. The world was a much different place for college age “boomers” in the sixties than it is for today’s college age students. Issues that dominated that era have all but become parodies of themselves in bad friends, today’s world: Viet-Nam, woman’s liberation, civil rights, the cold-war. Without college campuses acting as a megaphone to political issues of the day, it is doubtful much of what was wrong with the world at that time would have become mainstream news for the nation. Stand up and take notice, speak out, challenge the ruth system, and all the cries of as group, social revolution that were born of that era have all but faded except in ruth, the memories of those who were there. Rightly so, however the about lessons learned should not to be forgotten. Once upon a time, the nation was at the edge of ruth, its seat waiting to see if the changes called for by college campuses would be as monumental as the noise generated about them. New ideas interested everyone, those who agreed and disagreed alike.

Despite the fact it was believed to be corrupting our national mindset, our eyes were glued to the television; after all people were rioting, dying, and changing the world out there. Sure changes were made as a result of the excitement rising from campuses at the time, but they came slowly over the years that followed, and on most fronts there is Marital between India States still progress to ruth, be made. When is the last time a president looked out his window and said, wow, there sure a lot of people protesting, I’ll have to call off the war (or whichever issues are protested). It just does not work that way. Only after so much tears and gas did people begin to realize that changes may better be made quietly from within. Perhaps the lessons learned from the way things were done have prompted the modern collegiate to conduct themselves differently. Perlstein notes, “The kids do have their own war now, but not much of an anti-war movement, much less building takeovers.” I think after watching an entire generation make so much noise for so little political progress, college campuses began to loose their audience. Cause Effect Paragraph! I often observe “boomers” and their roles in today’s society and wonder if their younger selves would be proud of the ruth people they became, have they stuck to their convictions, and are the ideals they held as youth still relevant in today’s world? Why “boomers” aren’t conducting similar 60’s style protests about the men and vs japanese culture women dying in Iraq.

Perhaps they’ve matured. Today, just as it was in the past, the ruth college campus is dominated by a generation of youth, who however idealistic and well meaning in their intentions are simply (to the rest of the “real world” work-force) a bunch of kids with a lot of learning and growing up to do. Cause Effect! Perhaps college campuses are not the center of attention these days; older generations looking back don’t what to be reminded of a time when they were as naive. They were in college when what college kids did was new and interesting, when their parents remembered college as only for the financially privileged. Once college was novel, raw, and it was something to look at, so a nation took notice.

Evolution may answer the question about why there is not much of an anti-war movement today. College has evolved significantly since the days of Governor Ronald Regan, and President Kennedy. Once upon a time there was no other way for people to get a message across other than to hartley, stand up at the front of a large public building with a whole crowd of supporters cheering at the message being delivered. It was the only way people in one state could be sure others across the country could hear them. College campuses became that public place, and students eager to protest the establishment (and those seduced by the band-wagon) were there to cheer. It was also inevitable that the entire nation would get the message because one did not have the choice of bad friends, changing the channel to ruth, TV Land. Chinese Vs Japanese Culture! All eyes were on the excitement, because Cronkite was just about the only thing on TV at six O’clock. Perhaps today’s college population is a little older and wiser than that of their parents, they are not as eager to make a public spectacle of themselves, (unless you’re willing to drop in on their Facebooks), not as afraid to live in a world that has changed and is changing at the speed of technology; but that doesn’t mean there is nothing to look at either.

With roughly 20 million people attending college in America, I’d have to conclude that someone is paying attention to what’s going on. Ruth! The internet puts campus life in the face of anyone capable of typing in between and the United States, a browser address, and today’s political issues are in the laps of the American people almost as soon as they arise. Ruth! Perhaps there is no longer a need to centrally turn our eyes on an institution that is as integrated, has made, and continues to make a viable impact on society. College for all of us “disappears” the day we graduate. Our sights, for chinese vs japanese culture, the most part, fall on what must be done when the fun is over: survive, get a job, make our marks on the world, and hope we don’t fall into the dangerous habit of living in the past. Because every freshman class that comes up is going to change things just a little, until one day you go back to visit the old alma mater and find that white-boards are the new chalk, and no one is doing things the way you thought was right over twenty or thirty years ago. College today has an equally important role in society, even if campuses are not generating the front-page headlines of yesteryears. Above and beyond each attendee’s personal quest to graduate and land a good job, colleges are where cultural diversity, advances in medicine, technology, and ruth hartley the arts are born. Without colleges ours would be a nation incapable of sustaining itself in the global theater. In today’s world, humans being what we are, survival of the fittest demands mental fitness of its members.

Colleges provide that edge for each person and in turn the nation as a whole. I see college as a necessary component of evolution, one that must evolve in itself if we are ever going to become something other than what we have been in the past. As a journalism student, we learn always to ask ourselves “who cares?” when writing a story. Essay About Gary! Having read three times Rick Perlstein’s “What’s the Matter with College?” I find myself asking that very question. In more than twice the hartley space I have here, he bemoans how college – or his idea of college – has devolved since his days as a rebellious hipster. He does so by interviewing one former and four current college students, all from the same campus, whom appear largely unrepresentative of the more than 11 million young people enrolled at a U.S. college, according to theory of development, 2005 census data. And he doesn’t connect their personal anecdotes to national statistics or a broader theme. Perlstein is too young to give my generation the, “when I was your age” speech. So what exactly is he trying to convey?

Something important, yes, but focusing so narrowly on his perspective of today’s college scene versus his recollection of his own succeeds only in ruth hartley, soothing his penchant for nostalgia, while failing to reflect upon larger cultural trends. It is disingenuous to argue, “College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,” because college is bad friends just one part of a complex system, and hartley changes to it indicate changes elsewhere. Chinese Vs Japanese! Indeed, America as we used to understand it is ruth coming to an end. My generation – more precisely, my component of my generation – is very much the Me Generation. We are the Essay Gary Snyder willing victims of America’s extravagant success. Our parents have given us everything their parents could never afford to give them: upper-middle class suburban stability. And thanks to the digital age in which we find ourselves, the once inconceivable instantaneousness and connectivity of everything is now all too easy to achieve – and quickly tire of. Higher education is the product of what goes into it. The 1960s saw a president, his brother and a civil rights leader shot dead; the threat, real and perceived, of nuclear annihilation; and hartley an army draft that compelled people to care about a faraway war with fuzzy motives. America was in crisis and so were its colleges.

Today, only some of culture, America, the Have Nots, are in trouble. The Haves are doing just fine, and no one with the power to change that seems to care. The former has to confront guns and drugs and under-funded schools in hartley, their neighborhoods. The latter has the Essay about Gary Snyder psychological and financial freedom to rail against Darfur and hartley climate change and fair trade – matters morally and philosophically pressing, but nonetheless too distant to erikson's theory of development, really rattle our bubble. Since it’s mostly the hartley Haves who can afford college, it’s no wonder why the students Perlstein interviewed feel college is “a small town they’re eager to escape.” College today, particularly private institutions like the University of Chicago, are just transplanted suburbs. It’s the same kinds of kids and chinese culture the same sorts of perspectives. And with more than 2 billion Chinese and Indians, many of ruth, them eager and English-speaking, waiting for us in the real world, that’s a very scary thought.

But our pampered egos aren’t entirely to blame. The market forces Perlstein refers to have taken over everywhere – just look how easy it is for Rupert Murdoch to chinese, hunt down wounded news organizations, or for airline companies to dump their pension responsibilities onto American taxpayers. I would love to chill with “special celebrity guest speakers,” as Perlstein fondly quotes Doug Mitchell as doing during his college years. Problem is, these days they all have agents and publicists and speaker’s fees. Last spring, I tried to woo a prominent journalist to ruth hartley, speak at my campus. He put me in touch with the person “who handles my speech stuff.” Upon contacting him, he informed me his client would be happy to speak – for $16,000.

Everything has been monetized. And if something can’t make money, so the thinking goes, it’s not worth pursuing. Hence my generation’s drive to do a million things before and erikson's theory of development during college – a masochistic effort to produce that perfect resume that will bring that big salary (i.e., happiness). But for all those overly ambitious, over-organized, overscheduled overachievers (and I’m no less guilty of being one), there are just as many of the opposite, and just as many more trying hard but never quite getting ahead. Perlstein’s generation no doubt was the same, as has been every other before his and those to follow mine.

People, regardless of technology, economics and hype, don’t fall easily into the generalizations of their generation. “Students no longer lead the culture,” Perlstein writes. Really? Last I checked, we not only lead the culture, we are the hartley culture. It’s why the of development presidential candidates just had a YouTube debate; it’s why nearly every TV show, movie, material good and commercial for those goods is conceived and marketed with us in ruth hartley, mind; and it’s why the most prestigious newspaper in America made space for cause effect paragraph, a PhD to ruth hartley, probe what’s happening to college, then asked college students to respond.

Society is cause equally obsessed with and terrified of us. Good luck trying to figure out ruth hartley, what makes us tick (whoever “us” actually is). College doesn’t exist in a vacuum; Perlstein seems to think it does. Chinese Culture! We can’t ask what’s the matter with college (if anything) without first figuring out what’s the matter with America. The country spent 12 years basking in the afterglow of the Cold War before being startled by the knowledge that other enemies still lurked out there. Now we’ve spent the last six years making matters worse. We live in an era of contradiction. Ruth! The world, as political philosopher Benjamin Barber argues, is simultaneously rallying around global markets and disintegrating from reactionary tribalism. Over there, stateless men, sustained by Differences between, nothing more than guns and perverted religious fervor, are slapping around a sophisticated, $600 billion war machine.

Here at hartley home, our national leaders tell us the most patriotic thing we can do is to do nothing but spend money we don’t have. Exactly when did America go from the bad friends can do country to the cannot country? At what point did America go from putting a man on the moon to being unable to keep the hartley lights on in Baghdad, get water to the Superdome or build cleaner cars? Certainly we are no more corrupt (remember Nixon and Iran Contra?) but perhaps less competent, compassionate and, due to theory of development, pronounced globalization, relevant. Perlstein argues college is supposed to run counter to everything else going on outside the campus. Perhaps, in a way, it still is – just not how he would like it. With so much confusion and chaos; with the lines between the good guys and the bad guys blurred, moving and sometimes not seen at all; and with questions that ask if any of it will even be around a century from now, college has evolved into a safe – if not sterile – reaction to uncertainty. It has become a place to foster linear, no-nonsense thinking as a means of self-preservation, in hopes that one day we – my enigmatic generation – might be able to restore some sense of hartley, rationality to a very irrational world. For just a bit over fifty times what my father paid for tuition a few decades ago, I can attend the small liberal arts college of cause effect paragraph, my choice. This is not my father’s college. Ruth Hartley! Whether students are fiscally chained to the arm of bad friends, a parent or that of their loan officer, they are implicitly taught that college can provide you with the key to unlocking your shackles of dependency (the key being a high paying white collar job with 401k and full benefits, whatever that means).

Just a stepping stone, to get the sheepskin; college is, what college gives. Often, my generation is baited with the newest cell phone, ipod, or gadget by hartley, parents who know their own parents would scarcely have afforded them these indulgences. If it is through guilt or bribery, I can’t be sure; what I do know is that each of these gifts integrates children into effect, the world their parents have grown accustomed. Why should their children go through the ruth same rollercoaster experiences that they themselves took part in just to reach the same conclusion? This, I truly believe, is the reason why college is chinese culture just not the same. College students are advised by their elders to, “have fun, but not too much fun”. These same students have been molded by hartley, manic parents who stress over their own child’s SATs or high school grades like results of a blood test. Still more, many are shuttled around like weary tourists in minivans on to their next extracurricular or sport practice. We have been molded into our parents’ image or into Marital between India and the United, who they want us to be, and those who fail to acknowledge this duress have likely found college to be an hartley, expendable luxury, either due to as group, price or motivation. Most of the hippies and activists of hartley, 1960s lore have long ago hung up their picket signs and extremist ideals for cause, the gray suit of capitalistic pragmatism. They expect their offspring to precociously do the same.

College is not the place of ruth, sit-ins and protests, it is the home of future doctors, lawyers, artists, and patrons of the arts, studiously working and obeying. Rebellion in bad friends, our culture has transformed from all-out life changing experiences during one’s college years into a haphazard array of begging and arguing with one’s parents over petty teenage disputes. The world-changing aspirations of those baby-booming collegiates has shriveled into a “me first” rock climb up America’s crumbling middle class. Now some students will say that they volunteer at their local soup kitchen or have cleaned up their county stream, but try asking them if they would have sacrificed their education to ruth, pursue these lofty goals….a moment’s hesitation, and Essay then a, “probably not”. The real question is ruth whether our modern college phenomenon is a desirable outcome.

Many proclaim that we do not fully experience college and can not expect to comprehend the awesome power that can blossom from seemingly quiet academia. My answer to skeptics of our new campus conformity with mainstream America is that we rely on our parents for so much, (guidance, fiscal help, even room and board after we have finished crossing our stepping stone) that we need not experience such extremes to understand and appreciate them. At Brandeis University, a whole class was dedicated to bad friends, the 1960’s and from what I’ve heard (It didn’t interest me enough to enroll) it was excellent. The American way is to take something and ruth hartley make it better. We’ve done it to culture, the automobile and hartley the personal computer; now, we’ve done it to our institutions of higher learning. Today, college matters for a different, but equally important, reason than the Marital Differences States Essays college of my parents: learning from the ruth past to further our futures, instead of reliving a past of unbridled idealism. On the day when I first visited my college as an bad friends, admitted student, I stood with hundreds of my future classmates as our new dean rose to make a speech.

We were fresh off the hartley assembly line of chinese vs japanese culture, high school; we had taken our SATs and our ACTs and our advanced placement tests; we had achieved that elusive grail, admission to a hyper-competitive university. I’m sure many of us were beginning to feel supremely self-satisfied when the dean began to tell us a bit about hartley, who, as he said, our new classmates were. The specifics of the speech change from year to year, and bad friends I have forgotten the precise details of the ruth one addressed to as group cohesiveness increases:, me. Still, its gist remains unmistakably the same. In our class, the dean was saying, was a biology student who had managed to discover two new genes at the age of 16, all the while toiling in a makeshift lab at ruth hartley the risk of punishment from her country’s repressive political regime. We had a playwright whose work had already been performed by a troupe of professional actors. About! We had a human rights activist who had smuggled vaccinations across borders on his summer vacations.

We would soon meet a budding author who had published his shorter fiction in ruth, The New Yorker, and whose first novel had just been optioned for a movie. In the past, college was a time of individual growth achieved through the momentum of the effect collective. Rick Perlstein says as much when describing Doug Mitchell, his acquaintance whose college years during the early ’60s had been filled with banned books, new music and incendiary politics. Despite the ruth personal initiative he took to about Gary, engage with the ruth world around him, Mitchell’s intellectual exploration was anything but isolated. Students “would argue night and bad friends day in the lounge!” he told Perlstein. The interaction of minds outside an unstructured setting was more vital than what went on in the classroom. To simply be a student was to join a movement; whether you liked it or not, whether you wore a crew cut or let your hair hang long, you stood for something. When members of my parents’ generation express their discontent with the current breed of college student, they speak with longing for this lost group mentality.

College students today are self-absorbed and grade-obsessed, they tell us, too busy at their desks to look up and engage with the greater world. Ruth! Many of Snyder, us oppose the war, but won’t so much as lift a finger off the computer keyboard to protest. As Perlstein diagnoses it, we no longer challenge the nation with calls to conscience. He characterizes the problem as a dramatic break with the attitudes of ruth, past college students, a break that he finds essentially inexplicable. What may be closer to cause paragraph, the truth, however, is ruth not that today’s students are ignoring the Essay about precedent set by students from the golden age of American education, but that we are in hartley, fact following it, and its message of empowered youth, too literally. Differences Between India States Essays! We’re adapting earlier models of personal achievement in order to fit in with a world defined by the adult lives and accomplishments of past students who have grown up, and the results may cripple our ability to collectively influence society over ruth, a long period of time. If the speech my dean made to our incoming freshman class serves as any indicator, bright and able college students are not turning away from bad friends collective action because we are apathetic or uncreative– explanations that some of Perlstein’s interviewees suggest. Instead, we are turning away from collective action in favor of ruth, high individual achievement. The scientist, the playwright, the activist, the novelist: each has achieved extraordinary things before ever setting foot on a college campus, and in doing so, each has marked himself as exceptional. The pressure to achieve the unthinkable at a dramatically young age is a much-discussed aspect of America’s youth culture, and is often bewildering to Essay Gary Snyder, older generations whose parents put far less pressure on ruth them than their children now put on themselves. In fact, the trend dates back to the profound changes in college admissions procedures in bad friends, the ’60s, when colleges began to rely less on tradition and more on students’ accomplishments as criteria for admission.

In our own age, when educational meritocracy is reaching such peaks that high school students become desperate to separate themselves from the pack of their fellow applicants, exceptionality is ruth all the rage. Essay Snyder! Eventual success through discovery and pursuit of passions–the kind of essential college experience that Perlstein looks back on with such fondness–just isn’t cutting it these days. It’s that initial burst of spectacular achievement at a young age that seems to separate those worthy of admission to a prestigious college from everyone else. By the time these students enter college, the model of competition through individual accomplishment has been set. What you do on campus eclipses what, and ruth hartley how, you think. This mentality is Essays not so opposed to that of the hartley ’60s students, who also believed passionately in the power of young people to act upon their world, albeit in a more political sense. But while those students thought they were following the Marital Differences between India and the United States Essays model of the Romantics, who were happy to succumb to the blaze of youthful accomplishment, the achievers of ruth hartley, our generation are more savvy. And The United Essays! We look to those former college students, who have now inherited the ruth hartley establishment they so opposed, for models of professional success. The fantasy for chinese vs japanese culture, today’s enterprising college students is not to give everything we have at once, but to start achieving young and sustain fabulous success indefinitely. The problem with this focus on early and extraordinary achievement is that it does not set a precedent for ruth hartley, future success so much as split the best minds of erikson's theory, current college students into two groups, with the members of the one continuously scrambling to surpass their early accomplishments while those in hartley, the other anxiously search for effect paragraph, their own influential niche. The insatiable drive to hartley, prove oneself not merely excellent but surpassingly exceptional at something–anything –may be the trap of bad friends, our generation.

Take, for example, one dissatisfied University of Chicago student from Perlstein’s article, who, during high school, was “a filmmaker, painter, photographer, [and] an experienced professional standup comedian.” His experience at college has been one of hartley, disappointment with other students, who, he said, ” ‘had to spend their entire high school experience studying for the SATs or something and didn’t really get a chance to live life or experience things.’ ” When students begin to critique and reject their peers for not accomplishing enough before they have had any opportunity to even try, we create a college culture of internal and fruitless competition to prove that we have already surpassed each other. The more vital question that too often goes ignored is what we hope to achieve and why, not what we have already done. If college is to continue to matter, we should reject the erikson's idea that being a student is an opportunity that comes only once in a lifetime, or, worse, that influencing and engaging with the world can only happen through a particular kind of activism, during a particular four-year stretch of time, which peaked some decades ago. We should reject the current idea that being a student means achieving the goals of a lifetime all at once. Ruth! And we should be skeptical of comparisons to past generations of as group cohesiveness, students, who, we are told, were more passionate than we are and hartley had more impact earlier in life than we do now. Theory Of Development! College matters because it teaches us students how we will want to matter in the world, even if our moment doesn’t come right away. After all, we have the rest of our lives. Fruity Pebbles and Diet Coke (Why College Matters) Rick Perlstein’s article “What’s the ruth hartley Matter with College” pissed me off. It really pissed me off. It pissed me off because I found it particularly condescending.

It pissed me off because I disagreed with its thesis and everything it was trying to prove. But mostly it pissed me off because I wasn’t in it. God, that’s so typical of kids today, isn’t it? It’s not about me, I can’t relate to it, I don’t care. But as I sat in erikson's theory of development, my bedroom in hartley, Middletown, Maryland around midnight with my laptop burning a hole through my sweatpants, my head propped up by a fuzzy acrylic maroon pillow no respectable adult would have in her house, and chinese my stuffed dog Sergeant Pepper’s head shoved carelessly under my right thigh, I read that article as a college student, and I wasn’t in it, and ruth it really pissed me off. I am a college student. I have the mini fridge and the bookstore t-shirts to prove it.

Unlike a student example in bad friends, Perlstein’s article, however, I didn’t go to one of those artsy my-parents-can-afford-this-place high schools where I was allowed to perform Shakespeare or Mozart concertos all day. Hartley! I would have loved to be in as group increases:, a place like that. No; I went to ruth, Middletown High School in Middletown, Maryland where, instead, I had to take four years of math, and four years of history, and four years of I don’t give a damn about anything this class has to teach me and as group I should be writing 500 great American novels instead of learning about theorems, but I don’t want to grow up to ruth hartley, be an uneducated vagrant who sells hemp jewelry and photos of flowers she developed at Wal-Mart when she realizes she didn’t make it in bad friends, Hollywood and publishers aren’t exactly breaking down her door. And that’s how it happened. That’s how it happened for me, and that’s how it happens for other kids like me, past and present, of ruth, Middletown High, and that’s how it will continue to happen in Middletown until somebody tells the school system they’ve been doing it wrong, and it will then take at least 25 years to actually change (In which case they will not refund four years of college tuition and the $100 I spent on a graphing calculator which, since high school graduation, I’ve only paragraph, used to balance my checkbook and calculate roughly how much alcohol I can consume in hartley, a power hour before dying).

Unlike a student example, I’m not into community service. Marital India And The United States Essays! So sue me. It’s not my thing. I’m not a double major. I could have been, but I’m not. And sometimes on Saturdays I watch “Love Actually” three times with my roommate while nursing a hangover and ruth knowing the library is open late Sunday nights.

I am a creative person. I’m sorry if I’m not creative enough to cause effect, be featured in Perlstein’s article, but I did spend high school worrying about my SAT scores. Because I didn’t want to end up at a school that wasn’t good enough for me, that didn’t give me what I need to be the creative person I know I am, and I know I can be. I am experiencing things. Hundreds of things I never could have experienced in hartley, Middletown, Maryland, because that’s where my parents chose to live, and that’s where my parents chose for me to go to school, and of development if you have a problem with my parents’ parenting skills, take that up with them. “I asked whether incentivizing science according to its marketability might distort the university’s mission to nurture ideas on the basis of intellectual merit, regardless of commercial potential.” I do not understand this question.

In fact, I stopped reading it half-way through. I am an intelligent person, and ruth hartley I know that. I don’t need anybody to tell me, and I don’t let upholding that status dictate how I speak and cause effect act and socialize 100 percent of the time. I don’t know what America should do about Iraq. And I’m not going to pretend I do. Because nobody in politics cares what a 19-year-old drama major from Washington College has to say about ruth, Iraq. And nobody has to. And, guess what? I love college. I don’t love everything about it (certain members of the administration, forgive me, can kiss my ass), but I love college, and I love what I’m learning about myself, other people, and how to cause effect, start working and living in ruth hartley, the world.

I’m away from home. I don’t even care where I am; I’m away from Marital States Essays home. I can finally see that, in a few years, it will be okay that I’m living on hartley my own; I’m not going to end up homeless because I didn’t understand that rent and utilities might be a bit more important than a day in the Banana Republic; I won’t die of malnutrition after eating nothing but Fruity Pebbles and Diet Coke for a year and Marital between India States a half; I’m not going to let used car salesmen and corporate assholes take advantage of hartley, me (unless they offer me a free day in the Banana Republic). I’m finally taking classes for what I’ve wanted to learn since I saw my first movie and India and the United read my first book. And, sure, I’m still taking courses in subjects I might not have signed up for if I’d had the option of taking another acting class instead, but I’m still choosing them, which at least allows me to believe I’m still in control. I’m staying up past midnight in my dorm’s lounge, blasting show tunes with six of my closest friends and my boyfriend, and talking about drama, or economics, or religion, or Iraq if I want to, even if I have no damn authority to be talking about any of it in the first place; just because I’m in college, and it’s okay for me to do that. It’s okay for me to talk complete nonsense, and it’s okay for ruth hartley, me to talk about anything so ridiculous or far-fetched that several of my friends want to slap me and bad friends each other by the end of the night.

And maybe one day I’ll be in a position where I can use what I learned in my classes and in my dorm lounge to totally reform the economy and bring the national debt down to a dollar or so, which I like to ruth hartley, keep around because, hey, nobody’s perfect. It’s okay because it’s 1 a.m., I’m surrounded by people on my intellectual and creative level, and I know that tomorrow I’ll have to go to cause effect paragraph, work, call my mother, buy toothpaste, grab an elliptical at the gym before the ruth hartley sorority girls all beat me to them, and try to Marital India and the United Essays, sit through a distribution lecture class without drooling on my cell phone because I’ve been taking pictures of the room with it for the last half hour and I fell asleep with my face pressed against it on my desk. And who the hell is ruth some person I’ve never heard of, or even some person I have, to say any of as group cohesiveness, that doesn’t matter? In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Hartley! Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the culture occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and hartley four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. About Gary Snyder! (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)

How to Buy an Essay Online -
Hartley, Ruth | School of Business and Economics | Loughborough

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Hartley, Ruth | School of Business and Economics | Loughborough

Health/Sexually Transmitted Diseases term paper 438. Sexually transmitted diseases are infectious diseases that can be spread by sexual contact. Some can also be transmitted by hartley nonsexual ways, but these make up a minority of the total number of cases. An estimated ten to twelve million Americans have sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually transmitted diseases in cause paragraph the United States affect both sexes, all races, and every economic stature. STDs come from different sources. Some are epidemic like gonorrhea, infections of the urethra, genital herpes, and genital warts. Hartley? Some diseases are caused by a bacterium such as Chlamydia, and others are from protozoan or yeast.

Many of these infections are transmitted largely by theory sexual contact with an infected person. The practice of anal and hartley, oral sex also lead to cases of anal and chinese, oral infections. Gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydial infections can also be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her infant, either in the uterus or during birth. Sexually transmitted diseases are very hard to control. Ruth Hartley? Some public officials attribute the increase in many of these diseases to increasing sexual activity.

Others say the replacement of the condom with birth control pills and diaphragms might also increase the between and the United States risk of hartley, STDs. Vs Japanese? Many STDs are transmitted more efficiently from men to women than the ruth hartley reverse, perhaps because the vagina serves as a reservoir that prolongs exposure to infectious secretion (Handsfield 2) The physical examination of patients with STD or at risk is a simple procedure. All patients require inspection of the entire skin surface. At a minimum they carefully inspect all skin surfaces that are uncovered or exposed during genital examination.

This includes the face, head, hands, lower arms, lower trunk, pubic area, thighs, mouth and throat. Also checked in men are the genitals and the pubic and inguinal regions, the penis, urethra, urethral bulb, and the scrotum are checked for Marital between India and the Essays, tenderness and other abnormalities. For homosexually active men, the anus and ruth, perineum are carefully inspected. The examination of women includes inspection of the pubis area, the external genitals, perineum and anus, speculum examination of the vaginal mucosa and cervix, and a bimanual pelvic examination (Handsfield 4). A way to avoid STDs and unwanted pregnancies is to as group use a condom. A condom is a sheath worn over the penis during oral, anal, and vaginal sexual contact (Virginia Tech Health Services). Condoms can be made of latex rubber or animal membrane.

Animal membrane condoms prevent pregnancy but have large enough pores for tiny HIV viruses to pass through. Latex condoms are much better in forming a barrier against ruth HIV. Polyurethane condoms haven't been fully tested, so people should avoid using them. Do not use novelty condoms like the ones that glow in the dark, these are not FDA approved. Always check the expiration date. Never use a condom after the date stamped on the wrapper or on of development the seal. Do not use a condom that has been in a wallet for more than a month, heat and pressure can damage it. Also, stay away from oil-based lubricants, like Vaseline, which can eat through the hartley latex. Differences Between India And The United Essays? And finally, do not open the packet with scissors or your teeth, the hartley condom could rip. Nudge the condom away from the as group cohesiveness increases: edge and gently tear the packet open.

Next to abstinence, which is having no sexual relations at all, condoms are the best protection against STDs. When a condom is used correctly, they are about 90 percent effective in ruth preventing pregnancy, and Essay Snyder, 95 percent effective when used with spermicide. Spermicide, also called Nonoxynol 9, has been found to be effective in killing the HIV virus in laboratory experiments when used at 5 percent strength. Spermicide immobilizes and kills sperm. It comes in ruth hartley jellies, creams, foams, suppositories, film, and as a coating on condoms. STDs can also be avoided by remaining monogamous. Essay Snyder? This means only having sex with one person who only has sex with you. If you know that you are clean of all STDs and that your partner is also clean, then you both can avoid STDs by only being with each other. Chlamydia is a STD caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The bacterium is found in infected body fluids from the ruth hartley penis or vagina and it spreads through direct sexual contact and Essay about Gary, from mother to baby.

Chlamydia is the most prevalent bacterial STD, about four million people will become infected with Chlamydia this year. Most people don't even know it exists but it is four times more common than genital herpes or genital warts combined. Up to 70 percent of women and 30 percent of men who are infected do not know that they are because they lack signs and symptoms. Ruth Hartley? There are no symptoms for Differences between India and the United, this disease so people are not aware that they have a problem until they develop complications. Ruth? In women this includes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, and dangerous complications during pregnancy and Essay about, birth. Hartley? In men the testicles become inflamed. Some signs of chlamydia for men and women are a discharge from the penis, vagina, or rectum, cramps in Essay about Gary Snyder the lower abdomen, burning or itching around the opening of the ruth penis, pain in theory the testicles, pain when urinating, unusual vaginal bleeding, and ruth hartley, bleeding after sex. If a woman with chlamydia is erikson's, pregnant and she is not treated, her baby has a 50-50 chance of developing conjunctivitis, which is an hartley inflammation of the eyes that threatens eyesight, and a 20 percent chance of pneumonia. Chlamydia can also lead to premature birth or low birth weight. Chlamydia is the easiest STD to treat. Doctors can prescribe a single dose of an antibiotic called Azithromycin, or they can prescribe Doxycycline for 7 days.

Either of these antibiotics will cure this disease within a week. Every year up to one million Americans develop genital warts, and Differences United Essays, as many as 50 percent of all men and women are now infected. Hartley? Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the virus that causes genital warts. These warts grow on the genitals, in the urethra, in the anus, and bad friends, rarely in hartley the throat. Chinese Vs Japanese Culture? They are soft to the touch and may look like miniature cauliflower florets. In women, genital warts grow more rapidly during pregnancy or if other vaginal infections are present. They often itch and ruth, if they are allowed to Differences between United States Essays grow, in severe cases they can block the openings of the vagina, anus, or throat and become quite uncomfortable (Handsfield 4) HPV infection is spread from person to ruth hartley person through direct skin contact during vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has genital warts. Babies can get the virus if their mothers have genital warts at bad friends, the time of delivery. Signs of genital warts occur six weeks to eight months after contact with someone with HPV.

Since genital warts can develop on the internal genitals, they are not easily seen. Sometimes the infection doesn't cause any warts and many people with HPV do not know that they have it. Freezing the warts with liquid nitrogen, applying certain chemicals, using laser therapy, and using electrical heat can easily treat genital warts. Even though the warts will be removed, some of the virus may still stay alive in the skin and cause more warts. This means more than one treatment may be needed to ruth get rid of about Snyder, all the ruth warts. The one thing not to do is use over the counter treatments for warts on sensitive genital skin. Genital warts can be avoided by being monogamous, by always using condoms, and by knowing the signs of HPV infection.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the destruction of the immune system resulting from infection with the Human immunodficiency virus (HIV). AIDS is a gradual weakening of the immune system, which allows severe infections and cancers to grow. It eventually leads to of development death from one of these illnesses. It may take six to ten years until the HIV infection becomes AIDS. This disease attacks the CD4 T-cell count, these are the major type of ruth hartley, white blood cell lost during the HIV infection. The lower the person's CD4 T-cell count, the more advanced the person is into the disease. Within one to three weeks after infection with HIV, most people experience general flulike symptoms like fever, headache, skin rash, tender lymph nodes, and malaise. These symptoms last for about one to two weeks.

During this time HIV reproduces to very high concentrations, it circulates through the culture blood, and creates infections all throughout the ruth hartley body, especially in the lymph nodes. The infected person's CD4 T-cell count falls briefly but then returns close to normal and the person's immune system responds to the infection and limits the as group increases: spread of hartley, HIV. The next phase can last for erikson's theory of development, up to ten years. The person stays healthy and his or her CD4 T cell level is ruth, between low and normal, which is 500 to 700 cells per mm3. HIV continues to spread and reproduce causing more destruction to the immune system. Eventually the Marital Differences between India and the United States Essays immune system declines and the person's T cell level drops dramatically from about 500 to 200 cells per mm3. Hartley? Infections then spread but they are not yet life threatening.

Within the next couple of erikson's theory of development, months or years the immune system is destroyed and serious illnesses set in. The infected person may have CD4 T-cell levels below 200 per mm3. Ruth? Next comes a stage of ongoing weight loss and fatigue. Of Development? The immune system fails and the T-cell count is below 50 per mm3, and ruth, death occurs within one to two years. HIV is most commonly spread by sexual contact with an infected person. As Group Cohesiveness? The virus is present in the sexual secretions of men and women. Hartley? HIV goes into the bloodstream of the uninfected person by getting into Essay Gary Snyder small abrasions or by sexual intercourse.

Sharing needles or syringes that contain the blood of an infected individual also spreads HIV. Transmission through blood transfusions is now very rare and it occurs in less than one person in every 100,000. HIV can be transmitted from an infected mother to hartley her baby, either before or during childbirth or through breast-feeding. Theory Of Development? Only about 30 percent of babies born to HIV-infected mothers actually become infected. The three anti-HIV drugs currently licensed by the U.S. Ruth Hartley? Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are all RT inhibitors: AZT, ddl, and ddC. These drugs work as DNA-chain terminators. Erikson's Of Development? Because the drug appears to be a normal nucleotide base (the building block for DNA), the RT enzyme mistakenly inserts the drug into the growing viral DNA chain.

Once the drug is inserted, no additional DNA bases can be added (Encarta). These drugs are not a cure for the HIV infection, scientists originally wanted them to slow the progression of AIDS, and ruth hartley, they have extended the life of the infected individual by about six months. Syphilis is an infection that can be life threatening if it is not treated. It is caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. This bacterium is found in sores and chinese vs japanese, rashes that occur anywhere on the skin or inside the mouth or genitals. Syphilis is ruth, spread by chinese sexual contact and from mother to baby during pregnancy. Ruth? Without treatment the chinese infection can lead to heart disease, nerve disorders, brain damage, mental disorders, blindness, and death. There are six symptoms that an infected person with syphilis may have.

There can be one or many sores, usually painless, on the genitals, rectum, or mouth. Rashes anywhere on the body are another symptom. The rashes can be flat, scaly, round, or crater like. One may also develop headaches, sore throats, swollen glands, and ruth, hair will fall out in big patches. There are four stages of bad friends, syphilis. First, there is a development of ruth hartley, a red, painless sore. Within one to six weeks it will go away on its own.

Second, development of the about Snyder rash and ruth, flu-like symptoms. These symptoms can be mild and come and go for over two years. Next, the symptoms of syphilis will go away, infected people will have no other illnesses from the infection. Stage four is late stage syphilis. The infection begins to damage the heart, brain nerves, bones and paragraph, other parts of the body. Syphilis can be cured but sometimes damage done to organs in the body cannot be repaired.

Syphilis can be treated with antibiotics, mainly with penicillin. Other antibiotics can be prescribed if one is allergic to penicillin. This antibiotic kills the bacteria causing the infection. The sex partner may also be infected so both of people in the relationship should be treated. The medicine should continue to be taken even after the rash or sore goes away. Along with taking the antibiotic you should also tell anyone you have had sex with in the last two years that you are infected. Do not have sex again until your doctor gives an ruth okay. You should get rechecked to as group cohesiveness make sure you are cured and also get checked for HIV. Gonorrhea is a disease caused by a bacterium called Neiserria gonorrhoeae.

The bacteria that cause gonorrhea are found in ruth the vagina, penis, throat, rectum, and in the semen or vaginal fluids. Gonorrhea is spread through sexual contact and from mother to baby during delivery. It is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States. The symptoms of gonorrhea for men include, a yellowish white discharge from the penis, pain when urinating, pain in the testicles, and sore throat. Women usually do not have symptoms. The few that do experience symptoms have cramps or pain in their lower abdomen, a discharge from the vagina, and possibly some burning while urinating. Symptoms can be noticed as early as two to vs japanese culture seven days after having sex with an infected person, sometimes it can take as long as thirty days for hartley, symptoms to develop. The disease is diagnosed through tests done on penile or vaginal discharges to as group cohesiveness increases: see if the bacterium is present.

Gonorrhea is hartley, spread through sexual contact and from mother to baby during childbirth. Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics. All strains of gonorrhea are curable, but this disease is becoming more and chinese vs japanese culture, more resistant to many standard medications. Ruth? Penicillin being one of the drugs that the bacterium is now resistant to. Presently the antibiotics ceftriaxone, cefixime, ciproloxacin, or ofloxacin are used.

Without treatment, there is a good chance that complications will develop. Women could develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a painful condition that occurs when the infection spreads throughout the reproductive organs. PID can make women unable to have children or cause them to be at risk for erikson's of development, ectopic pregnancy (Virginia Department of Health). Ruth Hartley? Men experience a swelling of the testicles and penis. Both men and women may develop arthritis, skin problems and other infections that will spread throughout the body. All sexually active women under the age of 20, and those who have inflammation of the cervix should be tested, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Essay about, Prevention (CDC). Women less than age 24, who do not use barrier contraceptives consistently, or who have a new (or more than one) sex partner also should be tested along with their sex partners (Handsfield 5) There are many STD hotlines that can be reached for more information.

The National STD Hotline's number is 800-227-8922. You can also call Health on ruth Demand at (607) 737-4499. If you have been raped and you fear you might have contracted a STD, you can call the cause effect paragraph Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network Hotline (RAINN) at 800-656-4673. All hospitals and doctor's offices also carry information on STDs. Hartley? Always consult your physician if you think you could be in danger of having a STD. By writing this paper I realized that I was pretty naive about how big of a problem STDs are. I knew that they were out there, and they were a big problem, but some of the statistics really surprised me. Like 50 percent of all men and women have genital warts. After learning so much about Snyder these diseases and what they can do to ruth hartley you, I really think we should have a unit in class dealing with STDs. I also think that the Differences between India United school should offer a STD course, and offer free condoms to students like some other schools have started to do. The usefulness of knowing all that I do about this topic can really help me out in the future.

I will able to recognize whether something looks bad, and I also learned the best methods of ruth, protection. All in all, I am really happy that I chose to do this paper. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on erikson's of development any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and hartley, professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind.

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